Restoration of the Rivers in Israel's Coastal Plain
- 176 Downloads
Israel's chronic water shortage has aggravated problems of river pollution, as almost no dilution of inadequately treated wastewater takes place. Since the early 1990s, large investments were made to build new wastewater treatment plants, designed to produce effluents of secondary quality or better. Consequently, it became of interest to examine the possibility of using tertiary treated effluents as a water source for rehabilitation of aquatic habitats. A survey of water quality in clean and polluted segments of Israel's coastal rivers was initiated, including analyses of riverbed sediments. Although many segments are still heavily polluted, there are examples of measurable improvement in water quality, which should lead to better sediment quality. It is argued that sediments serve both as a memory bank of past pollution events and as an ongoing source of anaerobic and toxic compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium compounds. Their chemical compositions are, therefore, of much importance for river restoration processes and monitoring.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Avnimelech, A.: 1998, Monitoring the Yarkon river sediment, Report submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, Israel, and the Yarkon River Authority, The Environmental Laboratory, Technion, Haifa (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Avnimelech, A.: 1999, Sediment analyses in the Alexander, Soreq and Lachish rivers, Report submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, Israel, The Environmental Laboratory, Technion, Haifa, (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
- Bloch, H.: 1998, in M. Landsberg-Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse and R. Enderline (eds), Proc. Internat. Conf. Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, UN/ECE, 25-30.Google Scholar
- De Wit, M. and Behrendt, H.: 1999, “Nitrogen and Phosphorous emissions from soil to surface water in the Rhine and Elbe basins,” Wat. Sci. Tech. 39 , 109-116.Google Scholar
- Hakstege, A. L., Heynen, J. J. M., Eenhoorn, J. K. and Versteeg, H. P.: 1998, “Strategies for management of contaminated sediments within the Meuse river system”, Wat. Sci. Tech. 37 419-424.Google Scholar
- Harremoes, P.: 1998, “The challenge of managing water and material balances in relation to eutrophication”, Wat. Sci. Tech. 37, 9-17Google Scholar
- Huisman, P., Wieriks, J. P. and de Jong, J.:1998, Co-operation on management of transboundary waters: the river Rhine case, Proc. Internat. Conf. Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, UN/ECE, 97-111.Google Scholar
- Madsen, B. L.: 1995, Danish watercourses-ten years with the new watercourse act, Ministry Envir. Energy, Denmark.Google Scholar
- Middelkoop, H. and van Haselen, C. O. G.(eds):1999, Twice a river: Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands, National Institute for Inland Water Management and Wastewater Treatment (RIZA).Google Scholar
- Topalian, M. L., Rovedatti, M. G., Castane, P. M. and Salibiane, A.: 1999, “Pollution in a lowland river system. A case study: the Reconquista river (Buenos Aires, Argentina)”, Wat. Air Soil Poll. 114 , 287-302.Google Scholar
- Wood, R. and Handley, J.: 1997, Mersey River Campaign (mid term report), England.Google Scholar