Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 116, Issue 1–2, pp 227–234

Observation and Confirmation of Foliar Ozone Symptoms of Native Plant Species of Switzerland and Southern Spain

  • J. M. Skelly
  • J. L. Innes
  • J. E. Savage
  • K. R. Snyder
  • D. Vanderheyden
  • J. Zhang
  • M. J. Sanz
Article

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone is considered as the major pollutant of concern to the health and productivity of forests in the eastern United States and has more recently become of increasing concern within the forests of southern Europe. Recent observations have clearly demonstrated foliar injury symptoms to be occurring on many tree and native plant species within remote forested areas. Several plant genera (and a few species within genera) found in both the forests of Switzerland and the southern coastal region of Spain exhibit field symptoms typical of ambient ozone exposures. Ozone exposures for many species have been conducted under controlled CSTR conditions and within open-top chambers within the study areas. Results have confirmed that the O3-like foliar symptoms as observed under natural forest and open grown conditions for many native tree, shrub, and herbaceous species in Spain and Switzerland are caused by exposures to ambient O3.

ozone pollution Switzerland Spain native species symptoms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bacci, P., Sandroni, S. and Ventura, A.: 1990, Sci. Total Environ. 96, 297–312.Google Scholar
  2. Bussotti, F., Soda, C. and Grossini, P.: 1998, in Vegetali come bioindicatori di inguinamento atmospherica in citta Italiane: Rusultati, problemi, prospettive. Ferretti, M. and Pellegrini, M. (eds.), pp.75–80, Pubblicato congiuntamente da:Commune di Bologna, META spa Modena, Provincia di Firenze, Italy.Google Scholar
  3. Butkovic, V., Cvitas, T. and Kasling, L.: 1990, Sci. Total Environ. 99, 145–151.Google Scholar
  4. Derwent, R.G.: 1990, Environ. Pollut. 63, 299–318.Google Scholar
  5. Deserti, M.: 1998, in Vegetali come bioindicatori di inguinamento atmospherica in citta Italiane:Rusultati, problemi, prospettive. Ferretti, M. and Pellegrini, M. (eds.), pp.85–92, Pubblicato congiuntamente da:Commune di Bologna, META spa Modena, Provincia di Firenze, Italy.Google Scholar
  6. Ferretti, M., Gavilli, G., Grossini, D., Lorenzini, M. and Pellegrini, M.: 1998, in Vegetali come bioindicatori di inguinamento atmospherica in citta Italiane:Rusultati, problemi, prospettive. Ferretti, M. and Pellegrini, M. (eds.), pp.21–34, Pubblicato congiuntamente da:Commune di Bologna, META spa Modena, Provincia di Firenze, Italy.Google Scholar
  7. Fuhrer, J.: 1996, Key elements in ozone risk analysis in Exceedance of critical loads and levels. Report of a workshop held in Vienna, Austria under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 22–24 November, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Fuhrer, J., Skärby, L. and Ashmore, M.R.: 1997, Environ. Pollut. 97, 91–106.Google Scholar
  9. Ghosh, R., Skelly, J. M., Innes, J. L. and Skelly, L.: 1998, Environ. Pollut. 102, 287–300.Google Scholar
  10. Grennfelt, P. and Beck, J. P.: 1994, in Critical levels for ozone: a UN-ECE workshop report. Fuhrer, J. and Achermann, B. (eds.), pp.184–194. Schriftenreihe der FAC Liebefeld, Swiss Fed. Res. Sta. for Agric. Chem., Liebefeld-Bern.Google Scholar
  11. Heagle, A. S., Body, D. E. and Heck, W. E.: 1973, Environ. Qual. 2, 365–368.Google Scholar
  12. Heck, W. W., Philbeck, R. B. and Dunning, J. A.: 1978, A Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) System for Exposing Plants to Gaseous Contaminants: Principles, Specifications, Construction and Operation. USDA-ARS Pub. No. ARS-S-181, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  13. Hettelingh, J-P., Posch, M. and de Smet, P.: 1996, in Critical levels for ozone in Europe: Testing and finalizing the concepts. Kärenlampi, L. and Skärby, L. (eds.), pp.125–137, University of Kuopio, Kuopio.Google Scholar
  14. Innes, J. L. and Skelly, J. M.: 1995, Effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on visible symptom development of Prunus serotina in southern Switzerland, Project. Rept., Swiss Fed. Inst. Forest, Snow, Landscape Res. Birmensdorf.Google Scholar
  15. Innes, J. L., Skelly, J., Landolt, W., Hug, C., Snyder, K. R. and Savage, J. E.: 1996, in Exceedance of critical loads and levels. Knoflacher, M., Schneider, J. and Soja, G. (eds.), pp.146–154, Report of a workshop held in Vienna, Austria under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 22–24 November 1995Google Scholar
  16. Klap, J. M., deVries, W., Erisman, J. W. and van Leeuwen, E. P.: 1997. Relationships between forest condition and natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the European scale; a pilot study. SC Report 150, RIVM Report 722108022. DLO Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  17. Lorenzini, G., Nali, C. and Panicucci, A.: 1994, Atmos. Environ. 38, 51–59.Google Scholar
  18. Matyssek, R. and Innes, J. L.: 1999, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. (this volume)Google Scholar
  19. Mea, M. D, D'Erchia, V., Cesaroni, D. and Bagni, N.: 1998, in Vegetali come bioindicatori di inguinamento atmospherica in citta Italiane: Rusultati, problemi, prospettive. Ferretti, M. and Pellegrini, M. (eds.), pp. 11–20, Pubblicato congiuntamente da:Commune di Bologna, META spa Modena, Provincia di Firenze, Italy.Google Scholar
  20. Millán, M. M. and Artinano, B.: 1992, Meso meteorological cycles of air pollution in the Iberian Peninsula (MECAPIP), Final report to the European Communities Commission EV4V-0097–E(A).Google Scholar
  21. Millán, M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E. and Artinano, B.: 1996, Atmos. Environ. 30, 1909–1924.Google Scholar
  22. Millán, M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E. and Kallos, G.: 1997, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 881–8823.Google Scholar
  23. NABEL: 1995, Luftbelastung 1994, Schriftenreihe Umwelt 244, Bern: Bundesamt fur Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft.Google Scholar
  24. Sanz, M. J. and Millán, M.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 1089–1094.Google Scholar
  25. Schenone, G. and Lorenzini, G.: 1990, Rivista di Patologia Veg. 26, 85–105.Google Scholar
  26. Skärby, L., Ro-Poulsen, H., Wellburn, F. A. M. and Sheppard, L. J.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 109–122.Google Scholar
  27. Skelly, J. M., Davis, D. D., Mcrrill, W., Cameron, E. A., Brown, H. D., Drummond, D. B. and Dochinger, L. S.: 1987, Diagnosing Injury to Eastern Forest Trees. USDA-For. Ser. Veg. Survey Res. Coop. and Penn State Univ., Univ.Park, PA.Google Scholar
  28. Skelly, J.M., Innes, J. L., Snyder, K. R., Savage, J. E., Hug, C., Landolt, W. and Bleuler, P.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 995–1000.Google Scholar
  29. Staffelbach, T., Neftel, A., Blatter, A., Gut, A., Fahrni, M., Stahelin, J., Prevot, A., Hering, A., Lehning, M., Neininger, B., Baumle, M., Kok, G. L., Dommen, J., Hutterli, M. and Anklin, M.: 1997a, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23, 345–23, 362.Google Scholar
  30. Staffelbach, T., Neftel, A. and Horowitz, L. W.: 1997b, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23, 363–23, 273.Google Scholar
  31. VanderHeyden, D. J.: 1999. Tropospheric ozone effects on native plants of southern Switzerland: Determining exposure/response relationships. Master of Science Thesis. Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA, USA. 16802.Google Scholar
  32. Wunderli, S. and Gehrig, R.: 1990, Atmos. Environ. 24A, 2641–2646.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Skelly
    • 1
  • J. L. Innes
    • 4
  • J. E. Savage
    • 2
  • K. R. Snyder
    • 2
  • D. Vanderheyden
    • 2
  • J. Zhang
    • 3
  • M. J. Sanz
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Resources Research InstitutePennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.School of ForestPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.Landscape ResearchSwiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, andBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  5. 5.Centro de Estudios Ambientales del MediterraneoValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations