Advertisement

Solar Physics

, Volume 195, Issue 2, pp 247–268 | Cite as

An Evolving Synoptic Magnetic Flux map and Implications for the Distribution of Photospheric Magnetic Flux

  • John Worden
  • John Harvey
Article

Abstract

We describe a procedure intended to produce accurate daily estimates of the magnetic flux distribution on the entire solar surface. Models of differential rotation, meridional flow, supergranulation, and the random emergence of background flux elements are used to regularly update unobserved or poorly observed portions of an initial traditional magnetic synoptic map that acts as a seed. Fresh observations replace model estimates when available. Application of these surface magnetic transport models gives us new insight into the distribution and evolution of magnetic flux on the Sun, especially at the poles where canopy effects, limited spatial resolution, and foreshortening result in poor measurements. We find that meridional circulation has a considerable effect on the distribution of polar magnetic fields. We present a modeled polar field distribution as well as time series of the difference between the northern and southern polar magnetic flux; this flux imbalance is related to the heliospheric current sheet tilt. We also estimate that the amount of new background magnetic flux needed to sustain the `quiet-Sun' magnetic field is about 1.1×1023 Mx d−1 (equivalent to several large active regions) at the spatial resolution and epoch of our maps. We comment on the diffusive properties of supergranules, ephemeral regions, and intranetwork flux. The maps are available on the NSO World Wide Web page.

Keywords

Magnetic Flux Current Sheet Heliospheric Current Sheet Meridional Flow Polar Magnetic Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altschuler, M. D. and Newkirk, G.: 1969, Solar Phys. 9, 131.Google Scholar
  2. Altschuler, M. D., Levine, R. H., Stix, M., and Harvey, J.: 1977, Solar Phys. 51, 345.Google Scholar
  3. Arge, C. N. and Pizzo, V.: 2000, J. Geophys. Res., submitted.Google Scholar
  4. Babcock, H. W.: 1961, Astrophys. J. 133, 572.Google Scholar
  5. Berrilli, F., Florio, A., and Ermolli, I.: 1998, Solar Phys. 180, 29.Google Scholar
  6. Bumba, V. and Howard, R. F.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 141, 1502.Google Scholar
  7. Deng, Y., Wang, J., and Harvey, J.: 1999, Solar Phys. 186, 13.Google Scholar
  8. Feldman, W. C., Barraclough, B. L., Phillips, J. L., and Y.-M. Wang, 1996: Astron. Astrophys. 316, 355.Google Scholar
  9. Hagenaar, H. J., Schrijver, C. J., and Title, A. M.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 481, 988.Google Scholar
  10. Harvey, J. W.: 1995, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 27, 952.Google Scholar
  11. Harvey, K. L. and Martin, S. F.: 1973, Solar Phys. 32, 389.Google Scholar
  12. Harvey, J. and Worden, J.: 1998, in K. S. Balasubramaniam, J. Harvey, and D. Rabin (eds), Synoptic Solar Physics, ASP Conf. Ser. 140, 161.Google Scholar
  13. Harvey, J. and Worden, J.: 2000, in preparation.Google Scholar
  14. Harvey, J., Gillespie, B., Meidaner, P., and Slaughter, C.: 1980, World Data Center A Report UAG-77.Google Scholar
  15. Hathaway, D. H.: 1996, Astrophy. J. 460, 1033.Google Scholar
  16. Howard, R. F.: 1996, Solar Phys. 169, 293.Google Scholar
  17. Howard, R., Bumba, V., and Smith, S. F.: 1967, Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication 626.Google Scholar
  18. Howard, R. F., Harvey, J. W., and Forgach, S.: 1990, Solar Phys. 130, 295.Google Scholar
  19. Janssens, T. J.: 1970, Solar Phys. 11, 222.Google Scholar
  20. Jao, L., McClymont, A. N., and Mikic, Z.: 1997, Solar Phys. 174, 311.Google Scholar
  21. Jokipii, J. R., Kota, J., and Smith, E. J.: 1998, EOS 79, S276.Google Scholar
  22. Kambry, M. A., Nishikawa, J., Sakurai, T., Ichimoto, K., and Hiei, E.: 1991, Solar Phys. 132, 41.Google Scholar
  23. Komm, R. W., Howard, R. F., and Harvey, J. W.: 1993, Solar Phys. 147, 207.Google Scholar
  24. Kress, J. M. and Wilson, P. R.: 1999, Solar Phys. 189, 147.Google Scholar
  25. Leighton, R.: 1964, Astrophys. J. 140, 1547.Google Scholar
  26. Leighton, R.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 156, 1.Google Scholar
  27. Leighton, R., Noyes, R., and Simon, G.: 1962, Astrophys. J. 135, 474.Google Scholar
  28. Levine, R. H., Altschuler, M. D., and Harvey, J. W.: 1977, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1061.Google Scholar
  29. Livingston, W. C. and Harvey, J. W.: 1975, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 7, 346.Google Scholar
  30. Livingston, W., Harvey, J., and Slaughter, C.: 1970, Nature 226, 1146.Google Scholar
  31. Marsh, K. A.: 1978, Solar Phys. 59, 105.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, S. F.: 1988, Solar Phys. 117, 243.Google Scholar
  33. Mikic, Z., Linker, J. A., and Colborn, J. A.:1996, Bull. Amer. Astron. Soc. 28, 868.Google Scholar
  34. Mosher, J. M.: 1977, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  35. Parker, E. N.: 1997, Solar Phys. 176, 219.Google Scholar
  36. Petrovay, K. and Szakaly, G.: 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 274, 543.Google Scholar
  37. Schatten, K. H., Wilcox, J. M., and Ness, N. F.: 1969, Solar Phys. 9, 442.Google Scholar
  38. Schrijver, C. J.: 1989, Solar Phys. 122, 193.Google Scholar
  39. Schrijver, C. J.: 2000, Astrophys. J., submitted.Google Scholar
  40. Schrijver, C. J. and Harvey, K. L.: 1989, Astrophys. J. 343, 181.Google Scholar
  41. Schrijver, C. J., Hagenaar, H. J., and Title, A. M.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 475, 328.Google Scholar
  42. Schrijver, C. J., Title, A.M., van Ballegooijen, A. A., Hagenaar, H. J., and Shine, R.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 487, 424.Google Scholar
  43. Schrijver, C. J., Title, A. M., Harvey, K. L., Sheeley, N. R. Jr., Wang, Y.-M., van den Oord, G. H. J., Shine, R. A., Tarbell, T. D., and Hurlburt, N. E.: 1998, Nature 394, 152.Google Scholar
  44. Sheeley, N. R. Jr., DeVore, C. R., and Boris, J. P.: 1985, Solar Phys. 98, 219.Google Scholar
  45. Sheeley, N. R. Jr., Wang, Y.-M., and DeVore, C. R.: 1989, Solar Phys. 124, 1.Google Scholar
  46. Simon, G. W. and Leighton, R. B.: 1964, Astrophys. J. 140, 1120.Google Scholar
  47. Simon, G. W., Title, A. M., and Weiss, N. O.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 442, 886.Google Scholar
  48. Simpson, J. A., Zhang, M., and Bame, S.: 1996, Astrophys. J. 465, L69.Google Scholar
  49. Singh, J. and Bappu, M. K.: 1981, Solar Phys. 71, 161.Google Scholar
  50. Singh, J., Nagabhushana, B. S., Babu, G. S. D, Uddin, W.: 1994, Solar Phys. 153, 157.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, E. J., Lepping, R. P., Szabo, A., Jokipii, J. R., and Kota, J.: 1998, EOS 79, S276.Google Scholar
  52. Snodgrass, H. B.: 1983, Astrophys. J. 270, 288.Google Scholar
  53. van Ballegooijen, A. A., Cartledge, N. P., and Priest, E. R.: 1998, Astrophys. J. 501, 866.Google Scholar
  54. Wang, H. and Zirin, H.: 1989, Solar Phys. 120, 1.Google Scholar
  55. Wang, J., Wang, H., Tang, F., Lee, J. W., and Zirin, H.: 1995, Solar Phys. 160, 277.Google Scholar
  56. Wang, Y.-M. and Sheeley, N. R. Jr.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 365, 372.Google Scholar
  57. Wang, Y.-M. and Sheeley, N. R. Jr.: 1991, Astrophys. J. 375, 761.Google Scholar
  58. Wang, Y.-M. and Sheeley, N. R. Jr.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 430, 399.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, Y.-M, Sheeley, N. R., Jr., and Nash, A. G.: 1991, Astrophys. J. 383, 431.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Worden
    • 1
    • 2
  • John Harvey
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Solar ObservatoryUSA
  2. 2.National Optical Astronomy ObservatoriesTucsonU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations