Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 116, Issue 1–2, pp 199–226

Ozone - a Risk Factor for Trees and Forests in Europe?

  • R. Matyssek
  • J.L. Innes
Article

Abstract

Tropospheric ozone (O3) may adversely affect tree growth, with critical levels for O3 being exceeded in many parts of Europe. However, unequivocal evidence for O3-induced foliar injury on woody species under field conditions has only been found in a few places. Visible O3 injury appears to occur mainly in the Mediterranean Basin, which is also the area where the least amount of information is available on O3 exposure as well as the sensitivity of individual species. Overall, the quantitative risk assessment of O3 impacts on mature trees and forests is vague at the European scale, as most knowledge is derived from controlled O3 fumigations of young trees, grown in isolation in exposure chambers. Research suggests that risks exist, but these need to be validated for stand conditions. O3-induced changes in resource allocation rather than productivity appear to be crucial as they affect competitiveness and predisposition to parasite attack and may eventually lead to the loss of genetic diversity. ‘Free-air’ O3 fumigations in forest canopies may reveal processes that are susceptible to O3 stress under field conditions and provide a scientific basis towards quantitative risk assessment and realistic definitions of critical levels for O3 in forest ecosystems.

Tropospheric ozone Forests Ecological risk analysis Critical levels Free-air fumigation Visible injury European Alps 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aben J., Thiel, F., Boekestein, A.: 1989, Ultramicroscopy 31, 457.Google Scholar
  2. Andersen, C.P., Hogsett, W.E., Wessling, R., Plocher, M.: 1991, Can. J. For. Res. 21, 1288–1291.Google Scholar
  3. Andersen, C.P. and Rygiewiez, P.T.: 1991, Environ. Pollut. 73, 217–244.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, C.P. and Scagel, C.F.: 1997, Tree Physiol. 17, 377–387.Google Scholar
  5. Anfossi, D., Sandroni, S., Viarengo, S.: 1991, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17349–17352.Google Scholar
  6. Anon.: 1996, Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. Volume 3. Report no. EPA/600/P-93/004cF. Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 529 pages.Google Scholar
  7. Anttonen, S., Kittilä, M., Kärenlampi, L.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 663–668.Google Scholar
  8. Arndt, U. and Seufert, G.: 1990, Environ. Pollut. 68, 195–203.Google Scholar
  9. Arnone, J.A. III: 1996, ‘Predicting responses of tropical plant communities to elevated CO2: lessons from experiments with model ecosystems’, in Körner, C., Bazzaz, F.A. (eds.), Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 101–121.Google Scholar
  10. Barbo, D.N., Chappelka, A.H., Somers, G.L., Miller-Goodman, M.S., Stolte, K.: 1998, New Phytol. 138, 653–662.Google Scholar
  11. Barnes, J.D., Eamus, D., Brown, K.A., 1990a, New Phytol. 114: 713–720.Google Scholar
  12. Barnes, J.D., Eamus, D., Davison, A.W., Ro-Paulsen, H., Mortensen, L.: 1990b, Environ. Pollut. 63, 345–363.Google Scholar
  13. Benecke, U., Schulze, E.D., Matyssek, R., Havranek, W.M.: 1981, Oecologia 50, 54–61.Google Scholar
  14. Berrang, P., Karnosky, D.F., Bennett, J.P.: 1989, Can. J. For. Res. 19, 519–522.Google Scholar
  15. Berrang, P., Karnosky, D.F., Bennett, J.P.: 1991, Can. J. For. Res. 21, 1091–1097.Google Scholar
  16. Beyrich, F., Acker, K., Kalass, D., Klemm, O., Möller, D., Schaller, E., Werhahn, J., Weisensee, U.: 1996, Atmos. Environ. 30, 1271–1281.Google Scholar
  17. Blum, O., Bytnerowicz, A., Manning, W., Popovicheva, L.: 1997, Environ. Poll. 98, 299–304.Google Scholar
  18. Bode, W. (ed.): 1997, Naturnahe Waldwirtschaft. Prozeßschutz oder biologische Nachhaltigkeit? Deukalion, Holm, 396 pages.Google Scholar
  19. Bonello, P., Heller, W., Sandermann, H.: 1993, New Phytol. 124, 653–663.Google Scholar
  20. Brantley, E.A., Anderson, R.L., Smith, G.: 1994, How to Identify Ozone Injury on Eastern Forest Bioindicator Plants, Protection Report R8–PR 25, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Region and Northeastern Area, Asheville NC and Durham NH, 2 pages.Google Scholar
  21. Broadmeadow, M.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 123–125.Google Scholar
  22. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL): 1997, NABEL Luftbelastung 1996. Schriftenreihe Umwelt 286. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, Bern, 193 pages.Google Scholar
  23. Bytnerowicz, A., Manning, W.J., Grosjean, D., Chmielewski, W., Dmuchowski, W., Grodzinska, K., Godzik, B.: 1993, Environ. Poll. 80, 301–305.Google Scholar
  24. Chameides, W.L., Fehsenfeld, F., Rodgers, M.O., Cardelino, C., Martinez, J., Parrish, D., Lonneman, W., Lawson, D.R., Rasmussen, R.A., Zimmerman, P., Greenberg, J., Middleton, P., Wang, T.: 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 6037–6055.Google Scholar
  25. Chappelka, A.H. and Chevone, B.I.: 1992, ‘Tree response to ozone’, in Lefohn, A.S. (ed.), Surface Level Ozone Exposures and Their Effects on Vegetation, Lewis, Chelsea, MI, pp. 271–324.Google Scholar
  26. Chappelka, A.H., Renfro, J., Somers, G., Nash, B.: 1997, Environ. Pollut. 95, 13–18.Google Scholar
  27. Chappelka, A.H. and Samuelson, L.J.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 91–108.Google Scholar
  28. Coleman, M.D., Dickson, R.E., Isebrands, J.G., Karnosky, D.F.: 1996, Tree Physiol. 16, 145–152.Google Scholar
  29. Dalstein, L., Garrec, J.-P., Bonneau, M.: 1997, Rev. For. Franç. 49, 41–48.Google Scholar
  30. Damesin, C. and Rambal, S.: 1995, New Phytol. 131, 159–167.Google Scholar
  31. Davies, T.D. and Schuepbach, E.: 1994, Atmos. Environ. 28, 53–68.Google Scholar
  32. Davis, D.D. and Skelly, J.M.: 1992, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 62, 269–277.Google Scholar
  33. Davison, A.W. and Barnes, J.D.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 135–151.Google Scholar
  34. Dickson, R.E. and Isebrands, J.G.: 1991, ‘Leaves as regulators of stress response’, in Mooney, H.A., Winner, W.E., Pell, E.J. (eds.), Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 4–34.Google Scholar
  35. Dollard, G., Fowler. D., Smith, R.I., Hjellbrekke, A.-G., Uhse, K., Wallasch, M.: 1995, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 85, 1949–1954.Google Scholar
  36. Duckmanton, L. and Widden, P.: 1994, Mycologia 86, 181–186.Google Scholar
  37. Ebel, A., Hass, H., Jakobs, H.J., Laube, M., Memmesheimer, M., Oberreuter, A., Geiss, H., Kuo, Y.-H.: 1991, Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2131–2144.Google Scholar
  38. Einig, W., Lauxmann, U., Hauch, B., Hampp, R., Landolt, W., Maurer, S., Matyssek, R.: 1997, New Phytol. 137, 673–680.Google Scholar
  39. Epron, D., Dreyer, E., Bréda, N.: 1992, Plant. Cell, Environm. 15, 809–820.Google Scholar
  40. Ericsson, T., Rytter, L., Vapaavnori, E.: 1996, Biomass Bioenergy 11, 115–127.Google Scholar
  41. Farquhar, G.D., Ehleringer, J.R., Hubick, K.T.: 1989, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 40, 503–507.Google Scholar
  42. Ferretti, M.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 1031–1036.Google Scholar
  43. Field, C.B.: 1987, ‘Leaf-age effects on stomatal conductance’, in Zeiger, E., Farquhar, G.D., Cowan, I.R. (eds.), Stomatal Function, Stanford University Press, Stanford, pp. 367–384.Google Scholar
  44. Flagler, R.B. (ed.): 1998, Recognition of Air Pollution Injury to Vegetation: A Pictorial Atlas. A&WMA, Pittsburgh, 160 pages.Google Scholar
  45. Foyer, C.H., Lelandais, M., Edwards, E.A., Mullineaux, P.M.: 1991, ‘The role of ascorbate in plants, interactions with photosynthesis, and regulatory significance’, in Pell, E., Steffen, K. (eds.), Active Oxygen/Oxidative Stress and Plant Metabolism, American Society of Plant Physiologists, pp. 131–144.Google Scholar
  46. Fredericksen, T.S., Joyce, B.J., Skelly, J.M., Steiner, K.C., Kolb, T.E., Kouterick, K.B., Savage, J.E., Snyder, K.R.: 1995, Environ. Pollut. 89, 273–283.Google Scholar
  47. Fredericksen, T.S., Skelly, J.M., Steiner, K.C., Kolb, T.E., Kouterick, K.B.: 1996a, Environ. Pollut. 91, 53–63.Google Scholar
  48. Fredericksen, T.S., Skelly, J.M., Snyder, K.R., Steiner, K.C., Kolb, T.E.: 1996b, J. Air Waste Management Assoc. 46, 464–469.Google Scholar
  49. Fredericksen, T.S., Kolb, T.E., Skelly, J.M., Steiner, K.C., Joyce, B.J., Savage, J.E.: 1996c, Tree Physiol. 16, 485–490.Google Scholar
  50. Frei, C. and Schär, C.: 1998, Internat. J. Climatol. 18, 873–900.Google Scholar
  51. Frey, B., Scheidegger, C., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Matyssek, R.: 1996, New Phytol. 132, 135–143.Google Scholar
  52. Fuentes, J.D., Gillespie, T.J., Bunce, N.J.: 1994, Water Air Soil Pollut. 74, 189–210.Google Scholar
  53. Fuhrer, J., Skärby, L., Ashmore, M.R.: 1997, Environ. Pollut. 97, 91–106.Google Scholar
  54. Gehring, C.A., Cobb. N.S., Whitman, T.G.: 1997, Amer. Nat. 149, 824–841.Google Scholar
  55. Gimeno, B.S., Velissariou, D., Barnes, J.D., Inclan, R., Peña, J.M., Davison, A.W.: 1992, Ecología 6, 131–134.Google Scholar
  56. Goknur, A.B. and Tibbitts, T.W.: 1984, HortScience 19, 548.Google Scholar
  57. Götz, B.: 1996, Ozon und Trockenstreß, Wirkungen auf den Gaswechsel von Fichte, Libri Botanici Bd. 16, IHW-Verlag Eching, 149 pages.Google Scholar
  58. Greitner, C.S. and Winner, W.E.: 1989, ‘Nutrient effects on responses of willow and alder to ozone’, in Olson, R.K., Lefohn, A.S. (eds.), Transaction: Effects of Air Pollution on Western Forests, Air & Waste Management Association, Anaheim, California, pp. 493–511.Google Scholar
  59. Grennfelt, P. and Beck, J.P.: 1994, ‘Ozone concentrations in Europe in relation to different concepts of the critical levels’, in Fuhrer, J., Achermann, B. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone: a UN-ECE Workshop Report, Schriftenreihe der FAC Liebefeld, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry, Liebefeld-Bern, pp. 184–194.Google Scholar
  60. Groninger, J.W., Seiler, J.R., Zedaker, S.M., Berrang, P.C.: 1996, Funct. Ecol. 10, 708–716.Google Scholar
  61. Grulke, N.E. and Miller, P.R.: 1994, Tree Physiol. 14, 659–668.Google Scholar
  62. Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Landolt, W., Bucher, J.B.: 1996, Wald und Holz 77, 16–19.Google Scholar
  63. Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Matyssek, R., Scheidegger, C., Keller, T.: 1993, Trees 7, 104–114.Google Scholar
  64. Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., McQuattic, C.J., Scheidegger, C., Rhiner, C., Matyssek, R.: 1997, Can. J. For. Res. 27, 453–463.Google Scholar
  65. Hanson, P.J., Samuelson, L.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Tabberer, T.A., Edwards, G.S.: 1994, Tree Physiol. 14, 1351–1366.Google Scholar
  66. Hättenschwiler, S., Schweingruber, F.H., Körner, C.: 1996, Plant, Cell Environ. 19, 1369–1378.Google Scholar
  67. Havranek, W.M. and Wieser, G.: 1994, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. B 102, 541–546.Google Scholar
  68. Heath, R.L. and Taylor, G.E.: 1997, ‘Physiological processes and plant responses to ozone exposure’, in Sandermann, H., Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone, a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 317–368.Google Scholar
  69. Hendrey, G.R., Lewin, K.F., Kolher, Z., Evans, L.S.: 1992, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42, 1324–1327.Google Scholar
  70. Herms, D.A. and Mattson, W.J.: 1992, Quart. Rev. Biology 67, 283–335.Google Scholar
  71. Hettelingh, J.-P., Posch, M., de Smet, P.A.M.: 1996, ‘Mapping critical thresholds and stock at risk’, in Kärenlampi, L., Skärby, L. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone in Europe: Testing and Finalizing the Concepts, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, pp. 125–137.Google Scholar
  72. Hettelingh, J.-P., Posch, M., de Smet, P.A.M.: 1997, ‘Analysis of European maps’, in: Posch, M., Hettelingh, J.-P., de Smet, P.A.M., Downing, R.J. (eds.), Calculation and Mapping of Critical Thresholds in Europe: Status Report 1997, RIVM Report No. 259101007, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, pp. 3–18.Google Scholar
  73. Houpis, J.L., Costella, M.P., Cowles, S.: 1991, J. Environ. Qual. 20, 467–474.Google Scholar
  74. Inclán, R., Alonso, R., Pujadas, M., Terés, J., Gimeno, B.S.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 685–690.Google Scholar
  75. Innes, J.L.: 1990, ‘Some problems with the interpretation of international assessments of forest damage’, in Proc XIX World Congress IUFRO, Montréal, 5–11 August 1990, IUFRO, Montrèal, pp 380–387.Google Scholar
  76. Innes, J.L.: 1993, Forest health: Its Assessment and Status. CAB International, Wallingford, 677 pages.Google Scholar
  77. Innes, J.L., Ghosh, S., Dobbertin, M., Rebetez, M., Zimmermann, S.: 1997, ‘Kritische Belastungen und die Sanasilva-Inventur’, in Forum für Wissen 1997, Eidg. Forschungsanstalt Wald, Schnee Landschaft, Birmensdorf, pp. 73–83.Google Scholar
  78. Innes, J.L., Landmann, G., Mettendorf, B.: 1993, Environ. Monit. Assessm. 25, 29–40.Google Scholar
  79. Kärenlampi, L. and Skärby, L. (eds.): 1996, Critical Levels for Ozone in Europe: Testing and Finalizing the Concepts. University of Kuopio, Kuopio, 363 pagesGoogle Scholar
  80. Kandler, O. and Innes, J.L.: 1995, Environ. Pollut. 90, 171–180.Google Scholar
  81. Kangasjärvi, J., Talvinen, J., Utriainen, M., Karjalainen, R.: 1994, Plant Cell Environ. 17, 783–794.Google Scholar
  82. Karlsson, P.E., Medin, E.-L., Wickström, H., Selldén, G., Wallin, G., Ottoson, S., Skärby, L.: 1995, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 85, 1325–1330.Google Scholar
  83. Karnosky, D.F.: 1981, Mittl. Forstl. Bundesversuchsanstalt Wien 137, 41–45.Google Scholar
  84. Keller, T. and Häsler, R.: 1984, Oecologia 64, 284–286.Google Scholar
  85. Kellomäki, S. and Wang, K.-Y.: 1997, Environ. Pollut. 97, 17–27.Google Scholar
  86. Kelly, J.M., Samuelson, L., Edwards, G., Hanson, P., Kelting, D., Mays, A., Wullschleger, S.: 1995, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 85, 1317–1324.Google Scholar
  87. Klap, J., Voshaar, J.O., De Vries, W., Erisman, J.W.: 1997, ‘Relationships between crown condition and stress factors’, in Müller-Edzards, C., De Vries, W., Erisman, J.W. (eds.), Ten Years of Monitoring Forest Condition in Europe, European Commission, Brussels and United Nations Economic Council for Europe, Geneva, pp. 277–302.Google Scholar
  88. Kline, J.R., Reed, K.L., Waring R.H., Stewart, M.L.: 1976, J. Appl. Ecol. 13, 273–282.Google Scholar
  89. Kolb, T.E., Frederiksen, T.S., Steiner, K.C., Skelly, J.M.: 1997, Environ. Pollut. 98, 195–208.Google Scholar
  90. Küppers, M.: 1994, ‘Canopy gaps: competitive light interception and economic space filling — a matter of whole-plant allocation’, in Caldwell, M.M. and Pearcy, R.W. (eds.), Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants — Ecophysiological Processes Above and Below-Ground, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 111–144.Google Scholar
  91. Laisk, A., Kull, O., Moldau, H.: 1989, Plant Physiol. 90, 1163–1167.Google Scholar
  92. Lalas, D.P., Asimakopoulos, D.N., Deligiorgi, D.G., Helmis, C.G.: 1983, Atmos. Environ. 17, 1621–1632.Google Scholar
  93. Landolt, W., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Pfenninger, I., Einig, W., Hampp, R., Maurer, S., Matyssek, R.: 1997, New Phytol. 137, 389–397.Google Scholar
  94. Langebartels, C., Ernst, D., Heller, W., Lütz, C., Payer, H.-D., Sandermann, H.: 1997, ‘Ozone responses of trees: results from controlled chamber exposures at the GSF phytotrones’, in Sandermann, H., Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone, a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp. 163–200.Google Scholar
  95. Laurence, J.A., Amundson, R.G., Friend, A.L., Pell, E.J., Temple, P.J.: 1994, J. Environ. Qual. 23, 412–417.Google Scholar
  96. Laurila, T. and Tuovinen, J.-P.: 1996, ‘Monitored data in relation to exceedances of AOT40’, in Fuhrer, J. and Achermann, B. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone: a UN-ECE Workshop Report, Schriftenreihe der FAC Liebefeld, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry, Liebefeld-Bern, pp. 115–124.Google Scholar
  97. Lefohn, A.S.: 1992, Surface Level Ozone Exposures and Their Effects on Vegetation. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 366 pages.Google Scholar
  98. Lefohn, A.S. and Jones, C.K.: 1986, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 36, 1123–1129.Google Scholar
  99. Lewin, K.F., Hendrey, G.R., Nagy, J., McMorte, R.L.: 1994, Agric. For. Meteorol. 70, 15–29.Google Scholar
  100. Lippert, M., Steiner, K., Payer, H.-D., Simons, S., Langebartels, C., Sandermann, H. Jr.: 1996, Trees 10, 268–275.Google Scholar
  101. Loibl, W. and Smidt, S.: 1996, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 3, 213–217.Google Scholar
  102. Loomis, W.E.: 1953, ‘Growth and differentiation — and introduction and summary’, in Loomis, W.E. (ed.), Growth and Differentiation in Plants, Iowa State College Press, Ames, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  103. Lösch, R.: 1979, ‘Stomatal responses to changes in air humidity’, in Sen, D.N., Chawan, D.D., Bansal, R.P. (eds.), Structure, Function and Ecology of Stomata, Dehra Dun, pp. 189–216.Google Scholar
  104. Lucas, P.W. and Wolfenden, J.: 1996, Phyton 36, 51–56.Google Scholar
  105. Mahoney, M.J., Chevone, B.I., Skelly, J.M., Moore, L.D.: 1985, Phytopathology 75, 679–682.Google Scholar
  106. Maier-Maercker, U.: 1998, Trees 12, 181–185.Google Scholar
  107. Manning, W.J. and Krupa, S.V.: 1992, ‘Experimental methodology for studying the effects of ozone on crops and trees’, in: Lefohn, A.S. (ed.), Surface Level Ozone Exposures and Their Effects on Vegetation, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, USA, pp. 93–156.Google Scholar
  108. Manning, W.J. and v. Tiedemann, A.: 1995, Environ. Pollut. 88, 219–245.Google Scholar
  109. Mattson-Djos, E.: 1989, ‘The use of pressure bomb and porometer for describing plant water stress in tree seedlings’, in Puttunen, P. (ed.), Proc Nordic Symposium on Vitality and Quality of Nursery Stock, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, pp. 45–57.Google Scholar
  110. Matyssek, R. and Schulze, E.-D.: 1988, Trees 2, 233–241.Google Scholar
  111. Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Keller, T., Scheidegger, C.: 1991, Trees 5, 5–13.Google Scholar
  112. Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Saurer, M., Keller, T.: 1992, Trees 6, 69–76.Google Scholar
  113. Matyssek, R., Keller, T., Koike, T.: 1993, Environ. Pollut. 79, 1–7.Google Scholar
  114. Matyssek, R., Reich, P.B., Oren, R., Winner, W.E.: 1995a, ‘Response mechanisms of conifers to air pollutants’, in Smith, W.K. and Hinckley, T.H. (eds.), Physiological Ecology of Coniferous Forests, Academic Press, New York, pp. 255–308.Google Scholar
  115. Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Maurer, S., Keller, T.: 1995b, Tree Physiol. 15, 159–165.Google Scholar
  116. Matyssek, R., Havranek, W.M., Wieser, G., Innes, J.L.: 1997a, ‘Ozone and the forests in Austria and Switzerland’, in Sandermann, H. Jr., Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone: a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 95–134.Google Scholar
  117. Matyssek, R., Maurer, S., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Landolt, W., Saurer, M., Polle, A.: 1997b, Phyton 37, 157–167.Google Scholar
  118. Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Schmutz, P., Saurer, M., Landolt, W., Bucher, J.B.: 1998, J. Sustainable Forestry 6, 3–22.Google Scholar
  119. Maurer, S, Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Landolt, W., Einig, W.: 1997, Trees 12, 1–10.Google Scholar
  120. Maurer, S. and Matyssek, R.: 1997, Trees 12, 11–20.Google Scholar
  121. McKee, I.F., Bullimore, J.F., Long, S.P.: 1997, Plant, Cell Environ. 20, 77–84.Google Scholar
  122. McLeod, A.R., Shaw, P.J.A., Holland, M.R.: 1992, For. Ecol. Manage. 51, 121–127.Google Scholar
  123. Meinzer, F.C., Grantz, D.A., Smit, B.: 1991, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18, 329–338.Google Scholar
  124. Menser, H.A.: 1964, Plant Physiol. 39, 564–567.Google Scholar
  125. Millán, M.M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E., Artiñano, B.: 1996, Atmos. Environ. 30, 1909–1924.Google Scholar
  126. Millán, M.M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E.: 1997, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8811–8823.Google Scholar
  127. Miller, J.E., Shafer, S.R., Schoenenberger, M.M., Pursley, W.A., Horton, S.J., Davey, C.B.: 1997, Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 96, 233–248.Google Scholar
  128. Miller, P.R., Grulke, N.E., Stolte, K.W.: 1994, ‘Effects of air pollution on giant sequoia ecosystems’, in Aune, P.S. (Technical Coordinator), Proceedings of the Symposium on Giant Sequoias: Their Place in the Ecosystem and Society, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, California, General Technical Report PSW-151, pp. 90–98.Google Scholar
  129. Miller, P.R. and McBride, J.R. (eds.): 1999, Oxidant Air Pollution Impacts in the Montane Forests of Southern California. A Case Study of the San Bernardino Mountains. Springer Verlag, New York, 424 pages.Google Scholar
  130. Miller, P.R. and Millecan, A.A.: 1971, Plant Disease Reporter 55, 555–559.Google Scholar
  131. Miller, P.R., Parmeter, J.R., Taylor, O.C., Cardiff, E.A.: 1963, Phytopathology 53, 1072–1076.Google Scholar
  132. Mooney, H.A. and Winner, W.E.: 1991, ‘Partitioning response of plants to stress’, in Mooney, H.A., Winner, W.E., Pell, E.J. (eds.), Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 129–141.Google Scholar
  133. Mortensen, L.M.: 1998, Scand. J. For. Res. 13, 189–196.Google Scholar
  134. Müller-Starck, G. and Ziehc, M.: 1991, Genetic Variation in European Populations of Forest Trees. J.D. Sauerländer's Verlag, Frankfurt, 271 pages.Google Scholar
  135. Musselman, R.C. and Hale, B.A.: 1997, ‘Methods for controlled and field ozone exposures of forest tree species in North America’, in Sandermann, H. Jr., Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone: a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 277–315.Google Scholar
  136. Neales, T.F. and McLeod, A.L.: 1992, Plant, Cell, Environ. 14, 979–986.Google Scholar
  137. Nebel, B. and Fuhrer, J.: 1994, Angew. Bot. 68, 116–121.Google Scholar
  138. Neufeld, H.S., Renfro, J.R., Hacker, W.D., Silsbee, D.: 1992, ‘Ozone in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: dynamics and effects on plants’, in Berglund, R.L. (ed.), Transactions: Tropospheric Ozone and the Environment II, Air & Waste Management Assoc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA., pp. 594–617.Google Scholar
  139. Ollinger, S.V., Aber, J.D., Reich, P.B.: 1997, Ecol. Applic. 7, 1237–1251.Google Scholar
  140. Olszyk, D.M. and Wise, C.: 1997, Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 66, 1–10.Google Scholar
  141. Pääkkönen, E., Holopainen, T., Kärenlampi, L.: 1996, ‘Relationships between open-field ozone exposures and growth and senescence of birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens)’, in Skärby, L., Pleijel, H. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone — Experiments with Crops, Wild Plants and Forest Tree Species in the Nordic Countries, TemaNord 1996: 582, pp. 39–48.Google Scholar
  142. Pääkkönen, E., Paasisalo, S., Holopainen, T., Kärenlampi, L.: 1993, New Phytol. 125, 615–623.Google Scholar
  143. Pearson, M. and Mansfield, T.A.: 1993, New Phytol. 123, 351–358.Google Scholar
  144. Pleijel, H., Wallin, G., Karlsson, P.E., Skärby, L.: 1996, Atmos. Environ. 30, 4077–4084.Google Scholar
  145. Polle, A., Wieser, G., Havranek, W.M.: 1995, Plant, Cell Environ. 18, 681–688.Google Scholar
  146. Polle, A., Matyssek, R., Günthardt-Goerg, M.S., Maurer, S.: 1998, ‘Defence strategies against ozone in trees: the role of nutrition’ in Agrawal, S., Agrawal, M., Krizek, D.T. (eds.), Environmental Pollution and Plant Responses, CRC, Lewis Publishers, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  147. Proyou, A.G., Toupance, G., Perros, P.E.: 1991, Atmos. Environ. 25A, 2145–2153.Google Scholar
  148. Pye, J.M.: 1988, J. Environ. Qual. 17, 347–360.Google Scholar
  149. Radoglou, K.: 1996, Ann. Sci. For. 53, 269–278.Google Scholar
  150. Rebbeck, J. and Jensen, K.F.: 1993, Can. J. For. Res. 23, 450–456.Google Scholar
  151. Reekie, E.G. and Bazzaz, F.A.: 1989, Oecologia 79, 212–222.Google Scholar
  152. Reich, P.B.: 1987, Tree Physiol. 3, 63–91.Google Scholar
  153. Reiter, R., Sladkovic, R., Kanter, H.J.: 1987, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 37, 27–47.Google Scholar
  154. Rennenberg, H., Herschbach, C., Polle, A.: 1996, J. Plant Physiol. 148, 296–301.Google Scholar
  155. Rico, M., Gallego, H.A., Moreno, G., Santa Regina, I.: 1996, Ann. Sci. For. 53, 221–234.Google Scholar
  156. Samuelson, L.J.: 1994, New Phytol. 128, 235–241.Google Scholar
  157. Samuelson, L.J. and Edwards, G.S.: 1993, New Phytol. 125, 373–379.Google Scholar
  158. Samuelson, L.J., Kelly, J.M., Mays, P.A., Edwards, G.S.: 1996, Environ Pollut. 91, 317–323.Google Scholar
  159. Sandermann, H. Jr.: 1996, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 34, 347–366.Google Scholar
  160. Sandroni, S., Bacci, P., Botta, G., Pellegrini, U., Ventura, A.: 1994, Sci. Total Environ. 156, 169–182.Google Scholar
  161. Sanz, M.J. and Millán, M.M.: 1998, Chemosphere 36, 1089–1094.Google Scholar
  162. Sasek, T.W. and Richardson, C.J.: 1989, For. Sci. 35, 745–755.Google Scholar
  163. Saurer, M., Maurer, S., Matyssek, R., Landolt, W., Güntbardt-Goerg, M.S., Siegenthaler, U.: 1995, Oecologia 103, 397–406.Google Scholar
  164. Saxe, H., Ellsworth, D.S., Heath, J.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 395–436.Google Scholar
  165. Schier, G.A., McQuattie, C.J., Jensen, K.F.: 1990, Can. J. For. Res. 20, 1714–1719.Google Scholar
  166. Schulze, E.-D.: 1970, Flora 159, 177–232.Google Scholar
  167. Schulze, E.-D. and Hall, A.E.: 1982, ‘Stomatal responses, water loss, and nutrient relations in contrasting environments’, in Lange, O.L., Nobel, P.S., Osmond, C.B., Ziegler, H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Plant Ecology 12B, Physiological Plant Ecology II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 182–230.Google Scholar
  168. Schulze, E.-D.: 1994, ‘The regulation of plant transpiration: interactions of feedforward, feedback, and futile cycles’, in Schulze, E.-D. (ed.), Flux Control in Biological Systems, Academic Press, New York, pp. 203–235.Google Scholar
  169. Schweizer, B., Arndt, U.: 1990, Environ. Pollut. 68, 275–292.Google Scholar
  170. Simini, M., Skelly, J.M., Davis, D.D., Savage, J.E.: 1992, Can. J. For. Res. 22, 1789–1799.Google Scholar
  171. Skärby, L.: 1994, ‘Critical levels for ozone to protect forest trees’, in Fuhrer, J., Achermann, B. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone: a UN-ECE Workshop Report, Schriftenreihe der FAC Liebefeld, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry, Liebefeld-Bern, pp. 74–87.Google Scholar
  172. Skärby, L. and Karlsson, P.E.: 1996, ‘Critical levels for ozone to protect forest trees — best available knowledge from the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe’, in Fuhrer, J., Achermann, B. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone: a UN-ECE Workshop Report, Schriftenreihe der FAC Liebefeld, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry, Licbefeld-Bern, pp. 72–85.Google Scholar
  173. Skärby, L., Ro-Poulsen, H., Wellburn, F.A.M., Sheppard, L.J.: 1998, New Phytol. 139, 109–122.Google Scholar
  174. Skeliy, J.M., Chappelka, A.H., Laurence, J.A., Fredericksen, T.S.: 1997, ‘Ozone and its known and potential effects on forests in eastern United States’, in Sandermann, H, Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone, a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp. 69–93.Google Scholar
  175. Skelly, J.M., Davis, D.D., Merrill, W., Cameron, E.A., Brown, H.D., Drummond, D.B., Dochinger, L.S. (eds.): 1987, Diagnosing Injury to Eastern Forest Trees: a Manual for Identifying Damage Caused by Air Pollution, Pathogens, Insects, and Abiotic Stresses, National Acidic Precipitation Program, Forest Response Program, Vegetation Survey Research Cooperative. University Park, PA: Agricultural Information Services, College of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, 122 pages.Google Scholar
  176. Skelly, J.M. and Innes, J.L.: 1994, Plant Disease 78, 1021–1032.Google Scholar
  177. Skelly, J.M., Innes, J.L., Snyder, K.R., Savage, J.E., Hug, C., Landolt, W., Bleuler, P.: 1998a, Chemosphere 36, 995–1000.Google Scholar
  178. Skelly, J.M., Savage, J.E., Snyder, K.R., VanderHayden, D., Zhang, J., Innes, J.L., Sanz, M.J.: 1998b, This volume.Google Scholar
  179. Smidt, S.: 1998, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. Spec. Issue 1, 25–31.Google Scholar
  180. Somers, G.L., Chappelka, A.H., Rosseau, P., Renfro, J.R.: 1998, For. Ecol. Managem. 104, 129–137.Google Scholar
  181. Sperry, J.S., Alder, N.N., Eastlack, S.E.: 1993, J. Exper. Bot. 44, 1075–1082.Google Scholar
  182. Spiecker, H., Mielikäinen, K., Köhl, M., Skovsgaard, J.: 1996, Growth Trends in European Forests, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 372 pages.Google Scholar
  183. Staehelin, J. and Schmid, W.: 1991, Atmos. Environ. 25A, 1739–1749.Google Scholar
  184. Staehelin, J., Thudium, J., Buehler, R., Volz-Thomas, A, Graber, W.: 1994, Atmos. Environ. 28, 75–87.Google Scholar
  185. Staffelbach, T., Neftel, A., Blattner, A., Gut, A., Fahrni, M., Stähelin, J., Prévôt, A., Hering, A., Lehning, M., Neininger, B., Bäumle, M., Kok, G.L., Dommen, J., Hutterli, M., Anklin, M.: 1997, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23345–23362.Google Scholar
  186. Stitt, M.: 1991, Plant. Cell Environ. 14, 741–762.Google Scholar
  187. Stitt, M. and Schulze, E.-D.: 1994, ‘Plant growth, storage, and resource allocation: from flux control in a metabolic chain to the whole-plant level’, in Schulze E-D (ed.), Flux Control in Biological Systems, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 57–118.Google Scholar
  188. Tjoelker, M.G. and Luxmoore, R.J.: 1991, New Phytol. 119, 69–81.Google Scholar
  189. Tjoelker, M.G., Volin, J.C., Oleksyn, J., Reich, P.B.: 1994, Plant, Cell Environ. 17, 211–218.Google Scholar
  190. Tjoelker, M.G., Volin, J.C., Oleksyn, J., Reich, P.B.: 1995, Plant, Cell Environ. 18, 895–905.Google Scholar
  191. Tobiessen, P.: 1982, Oecologia (Berl.) 52, 356–359.Google Scholar
  192. Tremmel, D.C. and Bazzaz, F.A.: 1995, Ecology 76, 262–271.Google Scholar
  193. Tretiach, M.: 1993, Acta Œcologia 14, 341–360.Google Scholar
  194. United Kingdom Photochemical Oxidants Review Group (UKPORG): 1987, Ozone in the United Kingdom, Department of the Environment, London, 112 pages.Google Scholar
  195. Velissarion, D., Davison, A.W., Barnes, J.D., Pfirrmann, T., Maclean, D.C., Holevas, C.D. 1992, Atmos. Environ. 26, 373–380.Google Scholar
  196. Velissariou, D., Gimeno, B.S., Badiani, M., Fumagalli, I., Davison, A.W.: 1996, ‘Records of O3 visible injury in the ECE Mediterranean region’, in Kärenlampi, L. and Skärby, L. (eds.), Critical Levels for Ozone in Europe: Testing and Finalizing the Concepts, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, pp. 343–350.Google Scholar
  197. Volin, J.C., Tjoelker, M.G., Oleksyn, J., Reich, P.B.: 1993, New Phytol. 124, 637–646.Google Scholar
  198. Volin, J.C., Reich, P.B. and Givnish, T.: 1998, New Phytol. 138, 315–325.Google Scholar
  199. Volz, A. and Kley, D.: 1988, Nature 332, 240–242.Google Scholar
  200. Waring, R.H. and Schlesinger, W.H.: 1985, Forest Ecosystems, Concepts and Management, Academic Press, Orlando, San Diego, New York, 340 pages.Google Scholar
  201. Waring, R.H. and Silvester, W.B.: 1993, Tree Physiol. 14, 1203–1213.Google Scholar
  202. Weinstein, D.A., Beloin, R.M., Yanai, R.D.: 1991, Tree Physiol. 9, 127–146.Google Scholar
  203. Wellburn, A.R., Barnes, J.D., Lucas, P.W., McLeod, A.R., Mansfield, T.A.: 1997, ‘Controlled O3 exposures and field observations of O3 effects in the UK’, in Sandermann, H., Wellburn, A.R., Heath, R.L. (eds.), Forest Decline and Ozone: a Comparison of Controlled Chamber and Field Experiments, Ecological Studies 127, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 201–236.Google Scholar
  204. Werner, H.: 1992, Das Indigopapier, sensitives Element zum Aufbau von Passivsammlern zur Messung von Ozonimmissionen, Forstl. Forschungsberichte München, 122.Google Scholar
  205. Wieser, G. and Havranek, W.M.: 1993, Trees 7, 227–232.Google Scholar
  206. Wieser, G. and Havranek, W.M.: 1995, Tree Physiol. 15, 253–258.Google Scholar
  207. Wieser, G. and Havranek, W.M.: 1996, J. Plant Physiol. 148, 189–194.Google Scholar
  208. Winner, W.E., Lefolm, A.S., Cotter, I.S., Greitner, C.S., Nellessen, J., McEvoy, L.R. Jr., Olson, R.L., Atkinson, C.J., Moore, L.D.: 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Ecology 86, 8828–8832.Google Scholar
  209. Wulff, A., Hänninen, O., Tuomainen, A., Kärenlampi, L.: 1992, Ann. Bot. Fennici 29, 253–262.Google Scholar
  210. Yoder, B.J., Ryan, M.G., Waring, R.H., Schoettle, A.W., Kaufmann, M.R.: 1994, For. Sci. 40, 513–527.Google Scholar
  211. Zaveri, R.A., Saylor, R.D., Peters, L.K., McNider, R., Song, A.: 1995, Atmos. Environ. 29, 1043–1065.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Matyssek
    • 1
  • J.L. Innes
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für ForstbotanikUniversität MünchenFreisingGermany
  2. 2.Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zürcherstrasse 111BirmensdorfSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations