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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 91, Issue 3–4, pp 507–577 | Cite as

The Earth's Dynamic Magnetotail

  • A. Nishida
Article

Abstract

Geomagnetic field lines that are stretched on the nightside of the Earth due to reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field constitute the Earth's magnetotail. The magnetotail is a dynamic entity where energy imparted from the solar wind is stored and then released to generate disturbance phenomena such as substorms. This paper gives an updated overview on the physics of the magnetotail by drawing heavily from recent research conducted with the GEOTAIL satellite. It summarizes firstly the basic properties of the magnetotail such as shape, size and magnetic flux content, internal motion and plasma regimes. Then it describes characteristics of tail plasmas of the solar-wind and the ionosphere origins. Thirdly it addresses acceleration and heating of plasmas in the magnetotail, where reconnection between the stretched field lines is the main driver but the site of the acceleration is not limited to the immediate vicinity of the neutral line. In the collisionless regime of the plasma sheet kinetic behaviors of ions and electrons control the acceleration process. The paper closes by enumerating the problems posed for future studies.

Keywords

Solar Wind Field Line Interplanetary Magnetic Field Plasma Sheet Internal Motion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Nishida
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Space and Astronautical ScienceSagamiharaJapan

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