Around solar maximum, the dominant interplanetary phenomena causing intense magnetic storms (Dst<−100 nT) are the interplanetary manifestations of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two interplanetary structures are important for the development of storms, involving intense southward IMFs: the sheath region just behind the forward shock, and the CME ejecta itself. Whereas the initial phase of a storm is caused by the increase in plasma ram pressure associated with the increase in density and speed at and behind the shock (accompanied by a sudden impulse [SI] at Earth), the storm main phase is due to southward IMFs. If the fields are southward in both of the sheath and solar ejecta, two-step main phase storms can result and the storm intensity can be higher. The storm recovery phase begins when the IMF turns less southward, with delays of ≈1–2 hours, and has typically a decay time of 10 hours. For CMEs involving clouds the intensity of the core magnetic field and the amplitude of the speed of the cloud seems to be related, with a tendency that clouds which move at higher speeds also posses higher core magnetic field strengths, thus both contributing to the development of intense storms since those two parameters are important factors in genering the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling via the reconnection process.
During solar minimum, high speed streams from coronal holes dominate the interplanetary medium activity. The high-density, low-speed streams associated with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) plasma impinging upon the Earth's magnetosphere cause positive Dst values (storm initial phases if followed by main phases). In the absence of shocks, SIs are infrequent during this phase of the solar cycle. High-field regions called Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are mainly created by the fast stream (emanating from a coronal hole) interaction with the HCS plasma sheet. However, because the Bz component is typically highly fluctuating within the CIRs, the main phases of the resultant magnetic storms typically have highly irregular profiles and are weaker. Storm recovery phases during this phase of the solar cycle are also quite different in that they can last from many days to weeks. The southward magnetic field (Bs) component of Alfvén waves in the high speed stream proper cause intermittent reconnection, intermittent substorm activity, and sporadic injections of plasma sheet energy into the outer portion of the ring current, prolonging its final decay to quiet day values. This continuous auroral activity is called High Intensity Long Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAAs).
Possible interplanetary mechanisms for the creation of very intense magnetic storms are discussed. We examine the effects of a combination of a long-duration southward sheath magnetic field, followed by a magnetic cloud Bs event. We also consider the effects of interplanetary shock events on the sheath plasma. Examination of profiles of very intense storms from 1957 to the present indicate that double, and sometimes triple, IMF Bs events are important causes of such events. We also discuss evidence that magnetic clouds with very intense core magnetic fields tend to have large velocities, thus implying large amplitude interplanetary electric fields that can drive very intense storms. Finally, we argue that a combination of complex interplanetary structures, involving in rare occasions the interplanetary manifestations of subsequent CMEs, can lead to extremely intense storms.
KeywordsSolar Wind Solar Cycle Coronal Hole Magnetic Storm Geomagnetic Storm
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