Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 163–182

Measuring Peer Pressure, Popularity, and Conformity in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Predicting School Performance, Sexual Attitudes, and Substance Abuse

  • Darcy A. Santor
  • Deanna Messervey
  • Vivek Kusumakar

DOI: 10.1023/A:1005152515264

Cite this article as:
Santor, D.A., Messervey, D. & Kusumakar, V. Journal of Youth and Adolescence (2000) 29: 163. doi:10.1023/A:1005152515264


Existing measures of peer pressure and conformity may not be suitable for screening large numbers of adolescents efficiently, and few studies have differentiated peer pressure from theoretically related constructs, such as conformity or wanting to be popular. We developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity in a sample (n = 148) of adolescent boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results showed that all measures constructed for the study were internally consistent. Although all measures of peer pressure, conformity, and popularity were intercorrelated, peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behaviors than measures assessing popularity, general conformity, or dysphoria. Despite a simplified scoring format, peer conformity vignettes were equal to if not better than the peer pressure measures in predicting risk behavior. Findings suggest that peer pressure and peer conformity are potentially greater risk factors than a need to be popular, and that both peer pressure and peer conformity can be measured with short scales suitable for large-scale testing.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darcy A. Santor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Deanna Messervey
    • 3
  • Vivek Kusumakar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifax
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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