Advertisement

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 109, Issue 1–4, pp 263–276 | Cite as

Chromium-Resistant Bacterial Populations from a Site Heavily Contaminated with Hexavalent Chromium

  • J. L. Bader
  • G. Gonzalez
  • P. C. Goodell
  • S. D. Pillai
  • A. S. Ali
Article

Abstract

Chromium-containing industrial effluents are primarily responsible for environmental contamination by toxic and highly mobile, hexavalent chromium. The dilution plate-count method, using media amended with Cr(VI) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg L-1, was used to compare the sizes of Cr(VI)-resistant bacterial populations from a soil contaminated with 25 100 mg kg-1 total Cr [12 400 mg kg-1 Cr(VI)] to those isolated from a slightly contaminated soil (99.6 mg kg-1 total Cr) and two other soils without any history of Cr contamination. Bacterial populations resistant to 500 mg L-1 Cr(VI) were isolated from all soils except the heavily contaminated soil. To determine whether Cr-resistant bacterial populations were indigenous to both the contaminated and the uncontaminated soils, enrichment cultures containing Cr(VI) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg L-1 were employed. Bacterial populations, as high as 105 (colony forming units) CFU g-1 soil, tolerant of 500 mg L-1 Cr(VI) were isolated from all soils within 48 h of enrichment suggesting that the presence of aerobic Cr(VI)-resistant bacterial populations is unrelated to contamination levels or contamination history. However, identification of these resistant bacteria using fatty acid profiles was unsuccessful suggesting that these populations may have unique characteristics. Fungal colonies resistant to 1000 mg L-1 Cr(VI) were routinely isolated from both uncontaminated and contaminated soils. The results suggest that Cr-resistant microorganisms may be present in soils, even those with no history of Cr contamination.

bacteria chromium resistance contamination hexavalent chromium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Apel, W. A. and Turick, C. E.: 1991, 'Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium by Bacterial Reduction', in R. W. Smith and M. Mishra (eds.), Mineral Bioprocessing, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrensdale, P, pp. 376–387.Google Scholar
  2. Bartlett, R. J. and James, B. R.: 1988, 'Mobility and Bioavailability of Chromium in Soils', in J. O. Nriagu and E. Nieboer (eds.), Chromium in the Natural and Human Environment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 267–304.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett, R. J. and Kimble, J. M.: 1976, J. Environ. Qual. 5, 383.Google Scholar
  4. Bopp, L. H.: 1980, 'Chromate Resistance and Chromate Reduction in Bacteria', Ph. D. thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.Google Scholar
  5. Bopp, L. H. and Ehrlich, H. L.: 1988, Arch. Microbiol. 150, 426.Google Scholar
  6. Cervantes, C. and Ohtake, H.: 1988, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56, 173.Google Scholar
  7. Choi, S. C. and Young, L. Y.: 1995, presented at the 95th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 21–25. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Coleman, R. N.: 1988, 'Chromium Toxicity: Effects on Microorganisms with Special Reference to the Soil Matrix', in J. O. Nriagu and E. Nieboer (eds.), Chromium in the Natural and Human Environment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 335–350.Google Scholar
  9. Day, P. R.: 1965, 'Particle Fraction and Particle-Size Analysis', in C. A. Black (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Am. Soc. Agron., Inc., Madison,WI, pp. 548–567.Google Scholar
  10. Deleo, P. C. and Ehrlich H. L.: 1994, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 40, 756.Google Scholar
  11. Ehrlich, H. L.: 1986, 'Interactions of Heavy Metals and Microorganisms', in D. Carlisle (ed.), Mineral Exploration: Biological Systems and Organic Matter, Rubey Volume V, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, pp. 221–237.Google Scholar
  12. Fujii, E., Toda, K. and Ohtake, H.: 1990, J. Ferment. Bioengin. 69, 365.Google Scholar
  13. James, B. R. and Bartlett, R. J.: 1983, J. Environ. Qual. 12, 177.Google Scholar
  14. Komori, K., Rivas, A., Toda, K. and Ohtake, H.: 1990, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33, 117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lindsay, W. L. and Norvell, W. A.: 1978, Soil Sci. Am. J. 42, 421.Google Scholar
  16. Losi, M. E. and Frankenburger Jr., W. T.: 1994, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 74, 405.Google Scholar
  17. McGrath, S. P. and Smith, S.: 1990, 'Chromium and Nickel', in B. J. Alloway (ed.), Heavy Metals in Soils, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 125–147.Google Scholar
  18. Ohtake, H. and Silver, S.: 1994, 'Bacterial Detoxification of Toxic Chromate', in G. R. Chaudry (ed.), Biological Degradation and Bioremediation of Toxic Chemicals, Dioscorides Press, Portland, pp. 403–415.Google Scholar
  19. Pillai, S. D., Josephson, K. L., Bailey, R. L., Gerba, C. P. and Pepper, I. L.: 1991, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 2283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Roane, T. M. and Pepper, I. L.: 1996, presented at the 96th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, May 19–23, New Orleans, Louisiana. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  21. Roszak, D. B. and Colwell, R. R.: 1987, Microbiol. Rev. 51, 365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Shacklette, H. T. and Boerngen, J. G.: 1984, Element Concentrations in Soils and Other Surficial Materials of the Conterminous united States, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  23. Tunlid, A. and White, D. C.: 1992, 'Biochemical Analysis of Biomass, Community Structure, Nutritional Status, and Metabolic Activity of Microbial Communities in Soil', in G. Stotzky and J. M. Bollag (eds.), Soil BiochemistryVol. 7, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Wang, P., Mori T., Komori K., Sasatsu, M., Toda, K. and Ohtake, H.: 1989, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55, 1665.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, Y. T. and Shen, H.: 1995, J. Ind. Microbiol. 14, 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Bader
    • 1
  • G. Gonzalez
    • 1
  • P. C. Goodell
    • 1
  • S. D. Pillai
    • 2
  • A. S. Ali
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of Texas at El PasoEl PasoU.S.A
  2. 2.Environmental Science ProgramTexas A&M University Research CenterEl PasoU.S.A

Personalised recommendations