Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 108, Issue 1–2, pp 149–187 | Cite as

Mercuty in Precipitation and Its Relation to Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Literature Review

  • S. G. Downs
  • C. L. MacLeod
  • J. N. Lester


Increases in industrial mercury (Hg) emissions in recent years have led many researchers to believe that Hg from the atmosphere constitutes a main source of Hg to aquatic biota in the absence of point source discharges. Established background levels for fish (0.2–1.0 mg kg-1) now exceed the pre industrial level of 0.15 mg kg-1, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. This review of recent literature illustrates how levels of mercury (Hg) species in the atmosphere are effectively transported into the aquatic arena, where chemical parameters combine to determine bioaccumulation rates in fish. Limited studies on methyl mercury (MeHg) in precipitation shown that concentrations average from 5% of total-Hg (T-Hg), to 1% in industrial regions. Observations of increased Hg is snow and precipitation from the Arctic Circle, related to poleward atmospheric circulation patterns, also demonstrate a spring maximum accompanying ozone depletion. Increases in oxidants and soil derived Hg in the atmosphere during the summer best explain summer Hg maximums observed in precipitation, while increased temperatures raise fish metabolism increasing Hg uptake through respiration and ingestion rate. The major route of entry for MeHg to fish appears to be biomagnification, after input from precipitation, runoff and inlake methylation. Regions buffered against acid precipitation maintain low fish-Hg levels by reduced MeHg production and maintaining gill function. When considering the bioaccumulation of Hg in fish this study shows that there are many variables to consider, not all of which originate from inside the aquatic arena. Both catchment and atmospheric processes combine with aquatic variables to dictate the overall levels of MeHg observed in fish tissue. There now appears to be sufficient knowledge to develop an axiom for the identification of aquatic systems likely to be susceptible to bioaccumulation from atmospheric derived Hg.


Ozone Bioaccumulation Methyl Mercury Ozone Depletion Aquatic Biota 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed, R., May, K. and Stoeppler, M.: 1987,Sci. Total Environ. 60, 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Airey, D.: 1982,Sci. Total Environ. 25, 19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, P., Borg, G. and Karrhage, P.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 8, 889.Google Scholar
  4. Ashby, J. R. and Craig, P. J.: 1993, 'Organometallic Compounds in the Environment', in Harrison, R. M. (ed.),Pollution. Causes, Effects and Control, Royal Society of Chemistry. Cambridge, pp. 309-342.Google Scholar
  5. Backes, C. A. and Tipping, E.: 1987,Water Research 21, 221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badsha, K. S. and Goldpsink, C. R.: 1982,J. Fish Biol. 21, 251.Google Scholar
  7. Badsha, K. S. and Goldpsink, C. R.: 1988,Chemosphere 17(2), 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barak, N. A.-E. and Mason, C. F.: 1990,Sci. Tot. Environ. 92, 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrie, L. A., Gregor, D., Hargrave, B., Lake, R., Muir, D., Tracey, B. and Bidleman, T.: 1992,Sci. Tot. Environ. 122, 1.Google Scholar
  10. Baudin, J. P.: 1987,Water Res. 21, 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, D. S. and Bigham, G. N.: 1995,Water. Soil, and Air Pollut. 80, 563.Google Scholar
  12. Berninger, K. and Pennanen, J.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 81, 283.Google Scholar
  13. Bhattacharya, B. and Sarkar, S. K.: 1996,Chemosphere 33(1), 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bidwell, J. R. and Heath, A. G.: 1993,Hydrobiologia 264, 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bjorklund, I., Borg, H. and Johansson, K.:Ambio 13, 118.Google Scholar
  16. Bjornberg, A., Hakanson, L. and Lundbergh, K.: 1988,Environ. Pollut. 49, 53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bloom, N. S.: 1989,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 46, 1131.Google Scholar
  18. Bloom, N. S. and Watras, C. J.: 1989,Sci. Total Environ. 87/88, 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bloom, N. S. and Effler, S. W.: 1990,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 53, 251.Google Scholar
  20. Bloom, N. S.: 1992,Can. J. Fish Aquatic Sci. 49(5), 1010.Google Scholar
  21. Bloom, N. S. and Tokos, J. J. S.: 1996, 'Sorptive behaviour of Hg(II) and Methylmercury on Natural air Particulate Matter in Precipitation', (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  22. Blum, J. E. and Bartha, R.: 1980,Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25, 404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bothner, M. H., Janke, R. A., Peterson, M. L. and Carpenter, R.: 1980,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bridges, C. R.: 1993, 'Ecophysiology of Intertidal Fish', in: Rankin, J. C. and Jensen, F. B. (eds.),Fish Ecophysiology, Chapman and Hall, p. 375.Google Scholar
  25. Brosset, C.: 1982Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 17(1), 37.Google Scholar
  26. Brosset, C.: 1983Water, Sci. Technol. 15, 59.Google Scholar
  27. Brosset, C.: 1987Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 34, 145.Google Scholar
  28. Brosset, C. and Lord, E.: 1991Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 493.Google Scholar
  29. Bryan, G. W.: 1979,Philos. Trans. Res. Soc., (London) B286. 483.Google Scholar
  30. Budd, J. M.., Rudd, T., Kirk, P.W.W., Beck, M. B., Wheater, H. S. and Lester, J. N.: 1988, 'Mercury in the River Yare and Its Associated Broads: Survey and Modelling', in Astruc, M. and Lester, J. N. (eds.),Heavy Metals in the Hydrological Cycle. Selper Ltd. pp. 137-154.Google Scholar
  31. Bubb, J. M., Williams, T. P. and Lester, J. N.: 1993,Water Sci. Technol. 28(8-9), 329.Google Scholar
  32. Bubb, J. M. and Lester, J. N.: 1994,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 78, 279.Google Scholar
  33. Bubb, J. M. and Lester, J. N.: 1996,Environ. Monitoring and Assessment 41, 87.Google Scholar
  34. Burke, J., Hoyer, M., Keeler, G. and Scherbatskoy, T.: 1995,Water. Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 353.Google Scholar
  35. Cappon, C. J. and Smith, J. C.: 1981,Arch. of Environ. Contamination and Toxicology 10, 305.Google Scholar
  36. Chazin, J. D., Allen, M. K. and Rodger, B. C.: 1995,Atmos. Environ. 29(11), 1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cocker, W. B., Kettles, O. M. and Shilts, W. W.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 1025.Google Scholar
  38. Commision of the European Communities: 1993,Off. J. Eur. Comm. L144, 23, 16/6/93 (93/351/EEC).Google Scholar
  39. Compeau, G. and Bartha, R.: 1983,Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 31, 486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Compeau, G. and Bartha, R.: 1984,Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48, 1203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cope, W. G., Wiener, J. G. and Rada, R. G.: 1990,Env. Roxicol. Chem. 9, 231.Google Scholar
  42. Craig, P. J.: 1980, 'Metal Cycles and Biological Methylation', in: Hutkinger, O (ed.),The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol 1, Part A "The Natural Environment and Biogeochemical Cycles", Springer Verlag. Berlin, pp. 169-227.Google Scholar
  43. Dooley, J. H.: 1992,Natural Sources of Mercury in the Kirkwood-Cohansey Aquifer System of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. New Jersey Geological Survey.Geological Survey Report 27. N. J.Google Scholar
  44. Dept. of Environmental Protection and Energy-Division of Science and Research. p. 18.Google Scholar
  45. Driscoll, C. T., Yan, C., Munson, R. and Holsapple, J.: 1994,Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 136A.Google Scholar
  46. Dvonch, J. T., Vette, A. F., Keeler, G. J., Evans, G. and Stevens, R.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut 80, 169.Google Scholar
  47. Ebinghaus, R., Hintelmannn, R. and Wilken, R. D.: 1994,F. J. Anal. Chem. 350(1-2), 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eddy, F. B.: 1981, 'Effects of Stress on Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Fish', in: Pickering, A. D. (ed.),Stress and Fish, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Edwards, S. C., MacLead, C. L. and Lester, J. N.: 1997, (in press).Google Scholar
  50. Edwards, S. C., Williams, T. P., Bubb, J.M. and Lester, J. N.: 1995,Env. Monitoring and Assessment. bf 36, 105.Google Scholar
  51. Evans, R. D.: 1986,Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 505.Google Scholar
  52. Fagerström, T. and Jernelöv, A.: 1972,Water Res. 6, 113.Google Scholar
  53. Ferrara, R., Maserti, B., Petrosino, A. and Borgagli, R.: 1986,Atm. Environ. 20(1), 125.Google Scholar
  54. Fitzgerald, W. F.: 1989, 'Atmospheric and Oceanic Cycling of Mercury', in: Riley, J. P. and Chester, R. (eds.),Chemical Oceanography 10, 151-186.Google Scholar
  55. Fitzgerald, W. F. and Watras, C. J.: 1989,Sci. Total Environ. 87/88, 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fitzgerald, W. F. and Clarkson, T. W.: 1991,Environ. Health Perspectives 96, 159.Google Scholar
  57. Fitzgerald, W.F., Mason, R. P. and Vandal, G. M.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 745.Google Scholar
  58. Fitzgerald, W. F., Vandal, G. M., Mason, R. P. and Dulac, F.: 1994, 'Air-Water Cycling of Mercury in Lakes', in: Watras, C. J. and Huckabee, J. W. (eds.),Mercury as a Global Pollutant: Towards Integration and Synthesis, Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  59. Fjeld, E. and Rognerud, S.: 1993,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50, 1158.Google Scholar
  60. Forstner, Y. and Whittmann, G. T. W.: 1981,Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 486.Google Scholar
  61. Friske, P. W. B. and Coker, W. B.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 1047.Google Scholar
  62. Fu, H., Steinebach, O. M., van det Hamer, C. J. A., Balm, P. H. M. and Lock, R. A. C.: 1990,Aquat. Toxicol. 16, 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gagne, F. and Blaise, C.: 1993,Water Res. 27(11), 1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gilmour, C. C. and Henry, E. A.: 1991,Environ. Pollut. 71, 131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Glass, G. E., Leonard, E. N., Chan, W. H. and Orr, D. B.: 1986,J. Great Lakes Res. 12(1), 37.Google Scholar
  66. Glass, G. E., Sorensen, J. A., Schmidt, K.W. and Rapp, G. R.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1059.Google Scholar
  67. Glass, G. E., Sorensen, J. A., Schmidt, K. W., Rapp, G. R., Yap, D. and Fraser, D.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 235.Google Scholar
  68. Graedel, T. E. and Crutzen, P. J.: 1993,Atmospheric Change. An Earth System Perspective, W. H. Freeman and Co., NY.Google Scholar
  69. Grieb, T. M., Driscoll, C. T., Gloss, S. P., Schofield, C. L., Bowie, G. L. and Porcella, D. B.: 1990,Env. Toxocol. Chem.9, 919.Google Scholar
  70. Gustin, M. S., Taylor, G. E. and Loenard, T. L.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 217.Google Scholar
  71. Gustin, M. S., Taylor, G. E. and Leonard, T. L.: 1996,Environ. Sci and Tecnnol. 30(8), 2572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hakanson, L.: 1984,Water Res. 18, 1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hakanson, L., Nilsson, A. and Andersson, T.: 1988,Environmental Pollution 49, 145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hakanson, L., Andersson, T. and Nilsson, A.: 1990,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 50, 171.Google Scholar
  75. Hall, B., Bloom, N. S. and Munthe, J.: 1995,Water, Soil and Air Pollut. 80(1-4), 337.Google Scholar
  76. Hamilton, S. J. and Mehrle, P. M.: 1986,Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 115, 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Harris, R. C., Beals, D. I., Hutchinson, D. and Bodaly, R. A.: 1996, 'Mercury Biomagnification and Increasing Concentrations with Age in Fish: A Bioeneretics Explanation', in: Ebinghaus, R., Petersen, G. and von Tumpling (eds.),Fouth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Book of Abstracts, p. 420.Google Scholar
  78. Harris, R. C. and Watras, C. J.: 1996, 'Standardizing Fish Mercury Concentrations by Age, Length or Weight: Bioenergetic Predictions of the Effects of Growth Rate', in: Ebinghaus, R., Petersen, G. and von Tumpling (eds.),Fouth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Book of Abstracts, p. 41.Google Scholar
  79. Heath, A. G.: 1987,Water Pollution and Fish Physiology, CRC Press, Boca Raton. Florida.Google Scholar
  80. Heiskary, S. A. and Helwig, D. D.: 1986, 'Mercury Levels in Northern Pike,Esox lucius, Relative to Water Chemistry in Northern Minnesota Lakes', in:Lake and Reservoir Management, Vol. II, pp. 33–7, Washington DC, North American Lake Management Society.Google Scholar
  81. Hendrey, G. R., Galloway, J. N., Norton, S. A., Schofield, C. L., Schaffer, P. W. and Burns, D. A.: 1980,Geological and Hydrochemical Sensitivity of the Eastern Unnited Sytates to Acid Precipitation, US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR, EPA-600-3/-80-024, p. 100.Google Scholar
  82. Henry, E. A., Dodge-Murphy, L. J., Bigham, G. N., Klein, S. M. and Gilmour, C. C.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 509.Google Scholar
  83. Hintelmann, H., Ebinghaus, R. and Wilken, R. D.: 1993,Water Res. 27, 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hintelman, H., Welbourn, P. M., Evans, R. D.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 1031.Google Scholar
  85. Hodson, P. V.: 1988,Aquat. Toxicol. 11, 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hogstrand, C. and Haux, C.: 1990,J. Exp. Mar. Ecol. 138, 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hogstrand, C. and Haux, C.: 1991,Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100C, 137.Google Scholar
  88. Holland, H. D.: 1978,The Chemistry of the Atmosphere and Oceans, Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Holz, J. and Kreutzmann, J.: 1996, 'Mercury in Rainwater of the North Sea and Baltic Coast in 1993 and 1994', in: Ebinghaus, R., Petersen, G. and von Tümpling, U. (eds.),Fourth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Book of Abstracts, pp. 456.Google Scholar
  90. Hoyer, H., Burke, J. and Keeler, G.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 199.Google Scholar
  91. Huckabee, J. W., Goldstein, R. A., Janzen, S. A. and Woock, S. E.: 1975, 'Methylmercuury in a Freshwater Foodchain', in:International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment. Symposium Proceedings II, Toronto, Canada, 1975, pp. 199-215.Google Scholar
  92. Huckabee, J. W., Janzen, S. A., Blaylock, B. G., Talmi, Y. and Beauchamp, J. J.: 1978,Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 107(6), 848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Huckabee, J. W., Elwood, J. W. and Hildebrand, S. G.: 1979, 'Accumulation of Mercury in Freshwater Biota', in: Nriagu (ed.),The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, Elsevier, Holland, pp. 277-302.Google Scholar
  94. Hudson, R. J. M., Gherini, S. A., Watras, C. J. and Porcella, D. P.: 1994, 'Modelling the Biogeochemical Cycle of Mercury in Lakes: The Mercury Cycling Model (MCM) and its Application to the MTL Study Lakes', in: Watras, C. J., Huckabee, J. W. (eds.),Mercury Pollution: Integration and Synthesis, Lewis Publishers, pp. 473-526.Google Scholar
  95. Hultberg, H., Iverfeldt, Å. and Lee, L. H.: 1994,Mercury as a Global Pollutant - Toward Integration and Synthesis, Watras, C., Huckabee, J. W. (eds.), Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  96. Iverfeldt, Å. and Lindqvist, O.: 1986,Atmos. Environ. 20(8), 1567.Google Scholar
  97. Iverfeldt, Å.: 1988,Marine Chemistry 23, 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Iverfeldt, Å.: 1991,Water, Air. and Soil Pollut. 56, 251.Google Scholar
  99. Jackson, T. A., Kipphut, G., Heaslein, R. H. and Schindler, D.W.: 1980,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 387.Google Scholar
  100. Jensen, S. and Jernelöv, A.: 1969,Nature 223, 753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Jensen, S. and Jernelov, A.: 1972, 'Behaviour of Mercury in the Emvironment', in:International Atomic Energy Agency, Mercury Contamination in Man and his Emvironment. Technical Report Series No. 137. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 43-48.Google Scholar
  102. Jernelöv, A.: 1970,Limnol. Oceanogr. 15, 958.Google Scholar
  103. Jernelöv, A.: 1972, 'Mercury and Food Chains', in: Hartung, R. and Dinman, B. D. (eds.)Environmental Mercury Contamination, Ann Arbor. Sci. Pub. Michigan, p. 174.Google Scholar
  104. Jernelöv, A. and Lann, H.: 1971,Oikos 22, 403.Google Scholar
  105. Jernöv, A. and Lord, M.: 1971,Mimieograph Report, Swedish Inst. Wat. and Air Pollut. Res.Google Scholar
  106. Jernelöv, A. and Johansson, K.: 1983, 'Effects of Acidity on the Turnover of Mercury in Lakes and Cadmium in Soil', in:International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment - Volume2, pp. 727-741.Google Scholar
  107. Jobling, M.: 1993,' Bioenergetics: Feed Intake and Energy Partioning', in: Rankin, J. C. and Jensen, F. B. (eds.),Fish Ecophysiolog, Chapman and Hall, pp. 1-44.Google Scholar
  108. Johansson, K. and Iverfeldt, I.: 1994, 'The Relation Between Mercury Content in Soil and the Transport of Mercury from Small Catchments in Sweden', in: Watras, C. J. and Huckabee, J.W. (eds.),Mercury pollution: Integration and Synthesis, Lewis, pp. 323-328.Google Scholar
  109. Johnson, M. G.: 1987,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 44, 3.Google Scholar
  110. Jonasson, I. R. and Boyle, R. W.: 1972,Canadian Mining and Metallurgical Bulletin 65(717), 32.Google Scholar
  111. Johansson, K., Aastrup, M., Andersson, A., Bringmark, L. and Iverfeldt, A.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 267.Google Scholar
  112. Joiris, C. R., Ali, I. B., Holsbeek, L. and Tapia, G.: 1995,Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55, 674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Keeler, G., Glinsorn, G. and Pisrone, N.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 159.Google Scholar
  114. Kim, J. P.: 1995,Sci. Total Environ. 164, 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kirchman, D. and Mitchell, R.: 1982,Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 200.Google Scholar
  116. Klaverkamp, J. F., MacDonald, W. A., Duncan, D. A. and Wagemann, R.: 1984, 'Metallothioneinn and Acclimation to Heavy Metals in Fish: A Review', in: Cairns, V.W., Hodson, P. V. and Nriagu, J. O. (eds.),Contaminant Effects on Fisheries, John Wiley and Sons, NY, pp. 99-113.Google Scholar
  117. Konovolov, Y. D.: 1994,Hydrobiological 30(1), 47.Google Scholar
  118. Korthals, E. T. and Winfrey, M. R.L 1987,Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 2397.Google Scholar
  119. Krabbenhoft, D. P. and Babiarz, C. L.: 1992,Water Resources Res. 28(12), 3119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Krauskopf, K. B. and Bird, D. K.: 1995,Introduction to Geochemistry (3rd Edition), McGraw-Hill International Editions. NY.Google Scholar
  121. Landers, D. H., Ford, J., Gubala, C., Monetti, M., Lasorsa, B. K. and Martinson, J.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 591.Google Scholar
  122. Lange, T. R., Royals, H. E. and Conner, L. L.: 1993,Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc. 122, 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. lasorsa, B. and Allen-Gil, S.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 905.Google Scholar
  124. Leah, R. T., Ma, Z. Y., Evans, S. J. and Johnson, M. S.: 1991,Environ. Pollut. 72, 117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Leah, R. T., Evans, S. J. and Johnson, M. S.: 1992,Environ. Pollut. 75, 317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lee, Y. H. and Hultberg, H.: 1990,Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 833.Google Scholar
  127. Lee, Y. H. and Iverfeldt, Å.: 1991,Water, Air and Soil Pollut. 56, 309.Google Scholar
  128. Lindberg, S., Stokes, P.M., Goldberg, E. and Wren, C.: 1987,Lead, Mercury, Cadmoum, and Arsenic in the Environment. Hutchinson, T. C. and Meema, K. M. (eds.), Scope 31. J. Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Lindberg, S., Turner, R. R., Meyers, T. P., Taylor, Jr., G. E. and Schroeder, W. H.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 577.Google Scholar
  130. Lindqvist, O. and Rodhe, H.: 1985,Tellus 37B, 136.Google Scholar
  131. Lindqvist, O., Jernelöv, A., Johansson, K. and Rodhe, H.: 1984, 'Mercury in the Swedish Environment, Global and Local Sources', SNV PM 1816, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, S-171 85 Solna, Sweden.Google Scholar
  132. Lindqvist, O. and Schroeder, W. H.: 1989, 'Cycling of Mercury in the Environment with Emphasis on the Importance of the Element in Acid Rain Studies', in: Pacyna, J. M. and Ottar, B. (eds.),Control and fat of Atmospheric Trace Metals, Kluwer Academic, pp. 303.Google Scholar
  133. Lindqvist, O., Johansson, K., Aastrup, M., Andersson, A., Bringmark, L., Hovsenius, G. and Iverfeldt, Å., Meili, M., Timm, B.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 55, 193.Google Scholar
  134. Lock, R. A. C., Cruijsen, P.M. J.M. and van Overbeeke, A. P.: 1981,Comp. Biochem. Physiol.68C, 151.Google Scholar
  135. Lockhart, W. L., Wilkinson, P., Billeck, B. N., Hunt, R. V., Wagemann, R. and Brunskill, G. L.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 603.Google Scholar
  136. Lodenius, M.: 1987,Aquilo 25:1, 57.Google Scholar
  137. Lodenius, M.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 323.Google Scholar
  138. Ludwiki, J. K.: 1990,Bull. Environ. Toxicol. 44, 357.Google Scholar
  139. Mason, C. F.: 1987,Chemosphere 16, 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mason, C. F. and Barak, N. A. E.: 1990,Chemosphere 21(4-5), 695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Mason, R. P., Fitzgerald, W. F. and Vandal, G. M.: 1992,A. Atmos. Chem 14, 489.Google Scholar
  142. Mason, R. P., Fitzgerald, W. F. and Morel, F. M.: 1994,Geochimica Cosmochim Acta 58(15), 3191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mason, R. P., Reinfelder, J. R. and Morel, F. M. M.: 1995,Water. Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 915.Google Scholar
  144. Mathers, R. A. and Johansen, P. H.: 1985,Can. J. Zool. 63, 2006.Google Scholar
  145. Matthiessen, P. and Brafield, A. E.: 1977,J. Fish Biol. 10, 399.Google Scholar
  146. McDonald, D. G., Freda, J., Cavdek, V., Gonzalez, R. and Zia, S.: 1991,Physiol. Zool. 64, 125.Google Scholar
  147. McDonald, D. G. and Wood, C. M.: 1993, 'Branchial Mechanisms of Acclimation to Metals in Freshwater Fish', in: Rankin, J. C. and Jensen, F. B. (eds.),Fish Ecophysiology, Chapman and Hall. UK, pp. 297-321.Google Scholar
  148. McElroy, W. J. and Munthe, J.: 1990,Kinetic Studies of Some Aqueous Reactions of Potential Importance in the Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury, NPTC Report ESTD/L/0129/R90.Google Scholar
  149. McMurtry, M. J., Wales, D. L., Scheider, W. A., Beggs, C. L. and Dimond, P. E.: 1989,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 46, 426.Google Scholar
  150. McNeal, J. M. and Rose, A. W.: 1974,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. McWilliams, P. G.: 1983,Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 74, 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Meger, S. A.: 1986,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 30, 411.Google Scholar
  153. Meili, M.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 719.Google Scholar
  154. Mierle, G.: 1990,Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 843.Google Scholar
  155. Mierle, G. and Ingram, R.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut56, 249.Google Scholar
  156. Mitra, S.: 1986,Switzerland Trans. Tech. Publications, pp. 19-50.Google Scholar
  157. Monteiro, L. R., Isidro, E. J. and Lopes, H. D.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 359.Google Scholar
  158. Montgomery, S., Mucci, A., Lucotte, M. and Pichet, P.: 1995,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 52, 2483.Google Scholar
  159. Morrison, K. A., Kuhn, E. S. and Watras, C. J.: 1995,Env. Sci. and Technol. 29(3), 571.Google Scholar
  160. Munthe, J.: 1992,Atmos. Environ. 26A(8), 1461.Google Scholar
  161. Nagase, H., Ose, Y., Sato., T. and Ishikawa, T.: 1982,Sci. Total Environ. 24, 133. Nelson, W. O. and Campbell, P. G. C.: 1991,Environ. Pollut.71(2-4), 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Newman, M. C. and Doubet, D. K.: 1989),Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18, 819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Newton, R. M., Weintraub, J. and April, R.: 1987,Biogeochemistry 3, 21.Google Scholar
  164. Nilsson, R.: 1988, 'Aluminium in Natural Waters - Toxicity to Fish and Man', in: Astruc, M. and Lester, J. N. (eds.),Heavy Metals in the Hydrological Cycle, Selper Ltd. pp. 11-18.Google Scholar
  165. Nillson, A., Andersson, T., Hakanson, L. and Andersson, A.: 1989,Mercury in Lake Fish-Linkases to Mercury and Selenium in Mor and Historical Emissions, (in Swedish with English Summmary). - SNV PM3593, pp. 1-117, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, S-171 85 Solna, Sweden.Google Scholar
  166. Nillson, A. and Hakanson, L.: 1992,Environ. Geol. Water Sci. 19(2) 75.Google Scholar
  167. Nishimura, H. and Kumagai, M.: 1983,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 20, 401.Google Scholar
  168. Ntow, W. J. and Khwaja, M. A.: 1989,Environ. technol. Lett. 10, 109.Google Scholar
  169. Olsen, K. R., Bergman, H. L. and Fromm, P. O.: 1973.J. Fish. Res. Board of Canada 30(9), 1293.Google Scholar
  170. Ormerod, S. J., Boole, P., McCahon, C. P., Weatherley, N. S., Pascoe, D. and Edwards, R. W.: 1987,Fresh. Biol. 17(2), 341.Google Scholar
  171. Ottawa River Project Group: 1979,Environ. 19, 231.Google Scholar
  172. Paerl, H. W.: 1985, 'Influence of Attachment on Microbial Metabolism and Growth in Aquatic Ecosystems', in: Savage, D. C., Fletchwr, M. (eds.),Bacterial Adhesions, Mechanism and Physiological Significance, Plenham Press, N.Y., pp. 363-400.Google Scholar
  173. Parks, J. W. and Hamilton, A. L.: 1987,Hydrobiol. 149, 159.Google Scholar
  174. Parks, J. W., Lutz, A. and Sutton, J. A.: 1989,Can J. Fish Aquat Sci. 46, 2184.Google Scholar
  175. Pascoe, D., Evans, S. A. and Woodward, J.: 1986,Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Pearce, F.: 1997,New Scientist, 21 June 1997, p. 17.Google Scholar
  177. Pennacchioni, A., Marchetti, R. and Gaggino, G. F.: 1976,J. Environ. Qual. 5, 451.Google Scholar
  178. Post, J. R., Vandenbos, R. and McQueen, D. J.: 1996,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53, 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Prestbo, E. M. and Bloom, N. S.: 1994,Mercury Speciation in Coal Combustion Flue Gas: methodology, Intercomparison, Artifacts and Atmospheric Implications, Presented at the Third International mercury Conference, Whistler, B. C., Canada, July 10-14.Google Scholar
  180. Raldu, D. and Pedrocchi, C.: 1996,Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57, 597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Ramlal, P. S., Rudd, J. W. M., Furutani, A. and Xun, L.: 1985,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 42, 685.Google Scholar
  182. Rapp, G., Allert, J., Liukkonen, J., Ilse, J., Loucks, O. and Glass, G.: 1985,Environ. Intern. 11, 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rapp, G., Liukkonen, B. W., Allert, J. D., Sorensen, J. A., Glass, G. E. and Loucks, O. L.: 1987,Environ. Geol. Water Sci. 9(3), 155.Google Scholar
  184. Rask, M.: 1983,Hydrobiol. 101, 139.Google Scholar
  185. Rask, M. and Metsala, T. R.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 369.Google Scholar
  186. Rask, M. and Verta, M.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 577.Google Scholar
  187. Regnell, O.: 1990,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 47, 548.Google Scholar
  188. Reid, S. D. and McDonald, D. G.: 1991,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 48, 1061.Google Scholar
  189. Reinert, R. E., Stone, L. J. and Willford W. A.: 1974,J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31, 1649.Google Scholar
  190. Richardson, M., Egyed, M. and Currie, D. J.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 31.Google Scholar
  191. Richman, L. A., Wren, C. D. and Stokes, P. M.: 1988,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 37, 465.Google Scholar
  192. Roberts, D. J., Lindell, T. and Kvarnas, H.: 1982, 'Environmental Factors Governing Regional Lake Quality Differences', SNV Report 1621, p. 32.Google Scholar
  193. Rodgers, D. W. and Beamish, F. W. K.: 1983,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 40, 824.Google Scholar
  194. Rodgers, D. W., Watson, T. A., Lamgan, J. S. and Wheaton, T. J.: 1987,Environ. Pollut. 261.Google Scholar
  195. Rodhe, H.: 1996,Plenary Session Speech., Fourth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Hamburg.Google Scholar
  196. Rolfhus, K. R. and Fitzgerald, W. F.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 291.Google Scholar
  197. Rudd, J. W. M.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 697.Google Scholar
  198. Rudd, J. W. M., Furutani, A. and Turner, M. A.: 1980,Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40, 777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Rudd, J. W. M. and Turner, M. A.: 1983,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 40, 2218.Google Scholar
  200. Rudd, J. W. M., Turner, M. A. Furutani, A., Swick, A. L. and Townsend, B. E.: 1983),Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 2206.Google Scholar
  201. Schindler, D.W., Hesslein, R. H., Wagemann, R. and Broecker W. S.: 1980,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 373.Google Scholar
  202. Schintu, M., Kauri, T. and Kudo, A.: 1989,Wat. Res. 23(6), 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Schroeder, W. H., Munthe, J. and Lindqvist, O.: 1989,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 48, 337.Google Scholar
  204. Seigneur, C., Wrobel, J. and Constantininou, E.: 1994,Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 1589.Google Scholar
  205. Shilts, W. W. and Coker, W. B.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 881.Google Scholar
  206. Shin, B. B. and Krenkel, P. A.: 1976,J. Water, Poll. Cont. Fed. 48, 473.Google Scholar
  207. Sidle, W. C.: 1993,Environ. geol. 21, 42.Google Scholar
  208. Slemr, F., Schuster, G. and Seiler, W.: 1985,J. Atmos. Chem. 3, 407.Google Scholar
  209. Slemr, F. and Langer, E.: 1992,Nature 355, 434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Slotton, D. G., Reuter, J. E. and Goldman, C. R.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut80, 841.Google Scholar
  211. Sorensen, J. A., Glass, G. E. and Schmidt, K. W.: 1994,Env. Sci. Technol. 28, 2025.Google Scholar
  212. Sorensen, J. A., Glass, G. E., Schmidt, K. W., Huber, J. K. and Ra, G. R.: 1990,Env. Sci. Technol. 24, 1716.Google Scholar
  213. Southworth, G. R., Turner, R. R., Peterson, M. J. and Boyle, M. A.: 1995,Chemosphere30(4), 779.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Spry, D. J., Wood, C. M. and Hodson, P. V.: 1981,Can. Tech. Rep. Fish Aquat. Sci., No. 999.Google Scholar
  215. Spry, D. J. and Wiener, J. G.: 1991,Environ. Pollut. 71, 243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Steffan, R. J., Korthals, E. T. and Winfrey, M. R.: 1988,Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Stein, E. D., Cohen, Y. and Einer, A. M.: 1996,Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 1.Google Scholar
  218. St. Louis, V. L., Rudd, J. W. M., Kelly, C. A., Beaty, K. G. Bloom, N. S. and Flett, R J.: 1994,Can. J. Fish. Aquat Sci. 51, 1065.Google Scholar
  219. St. Louis, V. L., J. W. M., Kelly, C. A. and Barrie, L. A.: 1995,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 405.Google Scholar
  220. Suns, K. and Hitchin, G.: 1990,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut650, 255.Google Scholar
  221. Swain, E. B., Engstrom, D. R., Brigham, M. E., Henning, T. A. and Brezonik, P. L.: 1992,Science 257, 784.Google Scholar
  222. Tremblay, A., Lucotte, M. and Rheault, I.: 1996,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 91, 255.Google Scholar
  223. Trust, T. J., Bull, L. M., Currie, B. R. and Buckley, J. T.: 1979,J. Fish Res. Board. Can. 36, 1174.Google Scholar
  224. Vandal, G. M., Fitzgerald, W. F., Boutron, W. F. and Candelone, J. P.: 1992, 'Mercury in Ancient Ice and Snow from the Antarctic. Abstract',International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, 31-May-4th June, Monteray, California.Google Scholar
  225. Vandal, G. M., Fitzgerald, W.F., Lamborg, C. H. and Rolfhus, K. F.: 1993, 'The Production and Evasion of Elemental Mercury in Lakes: A Study of Palette Lake, Northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. in: Nriagu, J. O. L. and Allan, R. J. (eds.),Heavy Metals in the Environment, volume 2, CEP Concultants, pp. 297-299.Google Scholar
  226. Vermette, S., Peden, M. E., Willoughby, T. C., Linberg, S. and Weiss, A. D.: 1995a,Atmos. Environ. 29(11), 1221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Vermette, S., Lindberg, S. and Bloom, N.: 1995b,Atmos. Environ. 29(11), 1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Verta, M., Rekolainen, S. and Kinnunen, K.: 1986,Causes of Increased Fish Mercury Levels in Finnish Reservoirs, - Publ. Water Research Inst. Nat. Board of Waters, Helsinki, Finland, 65, 44-71.Google Scholar
  229. Vigh, P., Mastala, Z. and Balogh, K. V.: 1996,Bull. Env. Cont. and Toxicol.56, 691.Google Scholar
  230. Vuorinen, P. J., Rask, M., Vuorinen, M. and Rautaniemi, J.: 1988,Acidification Study on the Lakes of Espoo 1987, Effects to Fish, (in Finnish) Publ. Espoo Committ. Environm. Protection 2/88, p. 23.Google Scholar
  231. Wang, J. S., Huang, P. M., Hammer, U. T. and Liaw, W. K.: 1989. 'Role of Dissolved Oxygen in the Desorption of Mercury from Freshwater Sediment', in: Nriagu, J. D. and Lakshminarayana, J. S. S. (eds.),Aquatic Toxicology and Water Quality Management. Volume 22 Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  232. Wang, J. S., Huang, P. M., Liaw W. K. and Hammer, U. T.: 1991,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 56, 533.Google Scholar
  233. Watras, C. J. and Bloom, N. S.: 1992,Limnol Oceanogr. 37(6), 1313.Google Scholar
  234. Watras, C. J., Bloom, N. S., Hudson, R. J. M., Cherini, S. A., Munson, R., Class, S. A., Morrison, K. A., Hurley, J. P., Wiener, J. G., Fitzgerald, W. F., Mason, R. P., vandal, G. M., Powell, D. E., Rada, R. G., Rislove, L., Winfrey, M., Elder, J., Krabbenhoft, D., Andren, A., Babiarz, C., Porcella, D. B. and Huckabee, J. W.: 1994, 'Sources and Fates of Mercury and Methylmercury in Wisconsin Lakes', in: Watras, C. J. and Huckabee, J.W. (eds.),Mercury Pollution: Integration and Synthesis, Lweis, pp. 153-180.Google Scholar
  235. Watras, C. J., Morrison, K. A. and Bloom, N. S.: 1995a,Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 84, 253.Google Scholar
  236. Watras, C. J., Morrison, K. A. and Host, J. S.: 1995b,Limnol. Oceanogr. 40(3), 556.Google Scholar
  237. Wedepohl, K. H.: 1991, 'The Composition of the Upper Earth's Crust and the Natural Cycles of Selected metals. Metals in natural Raw Materials. Natural Resources', in: Merian and Ernest (eds.),Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment-Occurrence, Analysis, and Biological relevance. VCH, NY, pp. 3-17.Google Scholar
  238. Weis, P.: 1984,Mar. Environ. res. 14(1-4), 153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Weis, P., Weis, J. S. and Bogden, J.: 1986,Environ. Poll. (Series A)40, 303.Google Scholar
  240. Weis, J. S. and Weis, P.: 1989,Bioscience 39, 89.Google Scholar
  241. Westöö, G.: 1966,Acta Chem. Scand. 20, 2131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Wiener, J. G.: 1987,Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural resources Conference 52, 645.Google Scholar
  243. Wiener, J. G., Fitzgerald, W. F., Watras, C. J. and Rada, R. G.: 1990,Env. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 909.Google Scholar
  244. Windom, H. L. and Smith, R. G.: 1992,Analysis of Mercury Species in groundwater Using ICP-MS and GC (Contract No P33492), Final report, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Georgia.Google Scholar
  245. Winfrey, M. R. and Rudd, J. W. M.: 1990,Env. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 853.Google Scholar
  246. Wren, C. D. and MacCrimmon, H. R.: 1983,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 40, 1737.Google Scholar
  247. Wren, C. D. and MacCrimmon, H. R.: 1986,Water res. 20, 763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Wren, C. D., Scheider, W. A., Wales, D. A., Muncaster, B. W. and Gray, I. M.: 1991,Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 48, 132.Google Scholar
  249. Wright, D. R. and Hamilton, R. D.: 1982,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38, 1459.Google Scholar
  250. Xun, L., Campbell, N. E. R. and Rudd, J. W. M.: 1987,Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44, 750.Google Scholar
  251. Yu, C., Wang, W., Liang, D., Cao, Z., He, Y. and Zhong, Y.: 1994,J. of Changchun College of Geology 24(1), 102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. G. Downs
    • 1
  • C. L. MacLeod
    • 1
  • J. N. Lester
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Processes and Water Technology GroupImperial College Centre for Environmental Technology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and MedicineLondonUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations