Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 105, Issue 3–4, pp 643–659

Modeling the Concentration of Aluminum in Surface Waters

  • Timothy J. Sullivan
  • B. J. Cosby


Although the increased mobilization of aluminum from soils to surface waters is widely recognized as one of the most important ecological effects of acidic deposition, lumped-parameter mathematical models of acidification response typically overestimate the change in Al concentration under changing deposition by a considerable margin. The assumption of equilibrium with gibbsite (Al(OH)3) in the MAGIC model and other models of acid-base chemistry is shown to be inconsistent with measured values for a large variety of lake and stream databases. A modified algorithm for predicting Al concentration, based on empirical relationships evident in field data, provided superior estimates of changes in Al concentration in three long-term monitoring data sets and under experimental conditions at two experimental watershed manipulation sites.

acid deposition acidification aluminium modeling 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berggren, D.: 1992, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 63, 125.Google Scholar
  2. Christophersen, N., Neal, C., Hooper, R. P., Vogt, R. D. and Andersen, S.: 1990, J. Hydrol. 117: 307–320.Google Scholar
  3. Christophersen, N., Seip, H. M. and Wright, R. F.: 1982, Water Resour. Res. 18, 977.Google Scholar
  4. Cosby, B. J., Norton, S. A. and Kahl, J. S.: 1996, Sci. Tot. Environ. 183, 49.Google Scholar
  5. Cosby, B. J., Wright, R. F. and Gjessing, E.: 1995, J. Hydrol. 170, 101.Google Scholar
  6. Cosby, B. J., Hornberger, G. M., Galloway, J. N. and Wright, R. F.: 1985, Water Resour. Res. 18, 51–63.Google Scholar
  7. Cronan, C. S. and Schofield, C. L.: 1979, Science 240, 304.Google Scholar
  8. Cronan, C. S., Walker, W. J. and Bloom, P. R.: 1986, Nature 324, 140.Google Scholar
  9. Dahlgren, R. A., Driscoll, and McAvoy, C. T.: 1989, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 1045.Google Scholar
  10. David, M. B. and Driscoll, C. T.: 1984, Geoderma 33, 297.Google Scholar
  11. Dickson, W. T.: 1978, Verh. Intern. Verein. Limnol. 20, 851–856.Google Scholar
  12. Driscoll, C. T.: 1984, Inter. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 16, 267.Google Scholar
  13. Driscoll, C. T, and Bisogni, J. J.: 1984, ‘Week Acid/base Systems in Dilute Acidified Lakes and Streams of the Adirondack Region of New York State’, in J. L. Schnoor, (ed.), Modeling of Total Acid Precipitation, Butterworth Publishers, Boston, pp. 53–72.Google Scholar
  14. Driscoll, C. T. and Newton, R. M.: 1985, Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 1018.Google Scholar
  15. Driscoll, C. T. and Dreason, R.: 1993, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 67, 319.Google Scholar
  16. Driscoll, C. T., Lehtinen, M. D. and Sullivan, T. J.: 1994, Water Resour. Res. 30, 297.Google Scholar
  17. Driscoll, C. T., Baker, J. P., Bisogni, J. J. and Schofield, C. L.: 1980, Nature 284, 161.Google Scholar
  18. Gherini, S. A., Mok, L., Hudson, R. J., Davis, G. F., Chen, C. W. and Goldstein, R. A.: 1985, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 26, 425.Google Scholar
  19. Henriksen, A., Lien, L., Truaen, T. S., Sevaldrud, I. S. and Brakke, D. F.: 1988, Ambio 17, 259.Google Scholar
  20. Herlihy, A. T., Landers, D. H., Cusimano, R. F., Overton, W. S., Wigington, P. J. Jr., Pollack, A. K. and Mitchell-Hall, T. E.: 1991, Temporal Variability in Lakewater Chemistry in the Northeastern United States: Results of Phase II of the Eastern Lake Survey. EPA/600/391/012. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  21. Hooper, R. P. and Shoemaker, C. A.: 1985, Science 229, 463.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, N. M., Driscoll, C. T., Eaton, J. S., Likens, G. E. and McDowell, W. H.: 1981, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1421.Google Scholar
  23. Kaufmann, P. R., Herlihy, A. T., Elwood, J.W., Mitch, M. E., Overton, W. S., Sale, M. J., Messer, J. J., Cougar, K. A., Peck, D. V., Rechhow, K. H., Kinney, A. J., Christie, S. J., Brown, D. D., Hagley, C. A. and Jager, H. I.: 1988, Chemical Characteristics of Streams in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States. Volume I: Population Descriptions and Physico-Chemical Relationships. EPA/600/388/021a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  24. Lind, C. J. and Hem, J. D.: 1975, Effects of Organic Solutes on Chemical Reactions of Aluminum, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827G.Google Scholar
  25. Mason, J. and Seip, H. M.: 1985, Ambio 14, 45.Google Scholar
  26. May, H. M., Helmke, P. A. and Jackson, M. L.: 1979, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43, 861.Google Scholar
  27. Mulder, J. and Stein, A.: 1994, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 85.Google Scholar
  28. Mulder, J., van Breenen, N., Rasmussen, L. and Driscoll, C.T.: 1989a, ‘Aluminum Chemistry of Acidic Sandy Soils with Various Inputs of Acidic Deposition in the Netherlands and in Denmark’, in T. E. Lewis (ed.), Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Aluminum, American Chemical Society. pp. 171–194.Google Scholar
  29. Mulder, J., van Breemen, and Eijck, H. C.: 1989b, Nature 337, 247.Google Scholar
  30. Muniz, I. P. and Leivestad, H.: 1980, ‘Acidification Effects on Freshwater Fish’, in D. Drabløs and A. Tollan, (eds.) Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, Proceedings International Conference Sandefjord, Norway, SNSFproject, Oslo, Norway, pp. 84–92.Google Scholar
  31. NAPAP: 1991, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program 1990 Integrated Assessment Report. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Washington, DC. 520 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Neal, C. and Christophersen, N.: 1989, Sci. Total Environ. 80, 195.Google Scholar
  33. Neal, C., Mulder, J., Christophersen, N., Neal, M., Waters, D., Ferrier, R. C., Harriman, R. and McMahon, R.: 1990a, J. Hydrol. 116, 11.Google Scholar
  34. Neal, C., Reynolds, B., Stevens, P. A., Hornung, M. and Brown, S. J.: 1990b, ‘II. Dissolved Inorganic Aluminum in Acidic Stream and Soil Waters in Wales’ in Edwards, R. W. (ed.). Acid Waters in Wales, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 173–188.Google Scholar
  35. Neal, C., Musgrove, T. and Whitehead, P. G.: 1989a, Sci. Total Environ. 80, 205.Google Scholar
  36. Neal, C., Reynolds, B., Stevens, P. and Hornung, M.: 1989b, J. Hydrol. 106, 155.Google Scholar
  37. Neal, C., Skeffington, R. A., Williams, R. and Roberts, D. J.: 1987, Earth and Planetary Sci. Ltrs. 86, 105.Google Scholar
  38. Norton, S. A., Kahl, J. S., Fernandez, I. J., Schofield, J. P., Rustad, L. E., Haines, T. A. and Lee, J.: 1993, ‘The Watershed Manipulation Project: Two-Year Results at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine(BBWM)’, in L. Rasmussen, T. Brydges, and O. Mathy (eds.), Experimental Manipulations of Biota and Biogeochemical Cycling in Ecosystems, ECSC.EEC.EAEC, Brussels, pp. 55–63.Google Scholar
  39. Norton, S. A., Henriksen, A., Wathne, B.M. and Weidal, A.: 1987, ‘Aluminum Dynamics in response to Experimental Additions of Acid to a Small Norwegian Stream’ in: Proceedings of UNESCO-IHP Symposium Acidification and Water Pathways, Vol. I, Bolkesjo, Norway, pp. 249–258.Google Scholar
  40. Schecher, W. D. and Driscoll, C. T.: 1994, ALCHEMI: ‘A Chemical EquilibriumModel to Assess the Acid-Base Chemistry and Specition of Aluminum in Dilute Solutions’, in Loeppert, R., Schab, A. P. and Goldberg, S. (eds.), Chemical Equilibrium and Reaction Models, Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  41. Schecher, W. and Driscoll, C. T.: 1987, Water Resour. Res. 23, 525.Google Scholar
  42. Schnitzer, M. and Skinner, S. I. M.: 1963, Soil Sci. 96, 181.Google Scholar
  43. Seip, H. M.: 1980, ‘Acidification of Freshwater — Sources and Mechanisms’, in D. Drabløs and A. Tollan, (ed.), Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, Proceedings of an International Conference. SNSF Project. Sandefjord, Norway, Oslo, Norway, pp. 358–365.Google Scholar
  44. Seip, H. M., Andersen, S. and Henriksen, A.: 1990, J. Hydrol. 116, 299.Google Scholar
  45. Seip, H. M., Christophersen, N. and Sullivan, T. J.: 1989, ‘Episodic Variations in Streamwater Aluminum Chemistry at Birkenes, Southernmost Norway’, in T. E. Lewis (ed.), Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Aluminum, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp. 159–169.Google Scholar
  46. Sullivan, T. J., Cosby, B. J., Norton, S. A., Charles, D. F., Wright, R. F. and Gjessing, E.: 1995, in A. Jenkins, R. C. Ferrier, and C. Kirby (eds.), Ecosystem Manipulation Experiments: Scientific Approaches, Experimental Design, and Relevant Results, Ecosystems Research Report 20, Commission of European Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 360–365.Google Scholar
  47. Sullivan, T. J., Driscoll, C. T., Gherini, S. A., Munson, R. K., Cook, R. B., Charles, D. F. and Yatsko, C. P.: 1989, Nature 338, 408.Google Scholar
  48. Sullivan, T. J., Christophersen, N., Muniz, I. P., Seip, H. M. and Sullivan, P. D.: 1986, Nature 323, 324.Google Scholar
  49. Ugolini, F. C., Minden, R., Dawson, H. and Zachara.: 1977, Soil Sci. 124, 291.Google Scholar
  50. Ulrich, B., Mayer, R. and Khanna, T. K.: 1980, Soil Sci. 130, 193.Google Scholar
  51. Wesselink, B. and Mulder, J.: 1994, ‘Aluminium Solubility Controls in Acid Forest Soils (I): Testing Hypothesis on Data from Solling, Germany’ in Time Trends & Mechanisms of Soil Acidification, Ph. D. Thesis, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  52. Wigington, P. J., Baker, J. P., DeWalle, D. R., Kretser, W. A., Murdoch, P. S., Simonin, H. A., Van Sickle, J., McDowell, M. K., Peck, D. V. and Barchet, W. R.: 1993, Episodic Acidification of Streams in the Northeastern United States: Chemical and Biological Results of the Episodic Response Project. EPA/600/R93/190, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  53. Wright, R. F., Lotse, E. and Semb, A.: 1993, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50, 258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy J. Sullivan
    • 1
  • B. J. Cosby
    • 2
  1. 1.E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc.CorvallisU.S.A
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleU.S.A

Personalised recommendations