Space Science Reviews

, Volume 80, Issue 1–2, pp 1–25 | Cite as

Sources of Ion Outflow in the High Latitude Ionosphere

  • A. W. Yau
  • M. André
Article

Abstract

Ion composition observations from polar-orbiting satellites in the past three decades have revealed and confirmed the occurrence of a variety of ion outflow processes in the high-latitude ionosphere. These processes constitute a dominant source of ionospheric plasma to the Earth's magnetosphere. We review the current state of our observational knowledge on their occurrence, energy, composition, variability, interrelationships, and quantitative contributions to the overall mass input to the magnetosphere. In addition, we identify the prevalent sources and the gaps of our current understanding of these sources.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. W. Yau
    • 1
  • M. André
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Space Research, Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Ume∢ DivisionUme∢ UniversityUme∢Sweden

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