, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 397–419 | Cite as

Travel to work and household responsibility: new evidence

  • Tracy Turner
  • Debbie Niemeier


A persistent empirical finding in the research on travel patterns is that women tend to engage in shorter work commutes than men. Research evaluating the degree to which this gender differential in commuting may be explained by the division of labor in the household has produced decidedly mixed findings. This paper presents a critical review of the methods and results of recent research on the gender differential in commuting along with the associated implications for the household responsibility hypothesis (HRH). While all of the articles reviewed are informative and unique, not all conclusions are well supported. The paper then tests the HRH using the 1990 NPTS travel data. The new evidence confirms that women continue to exhibit shorter commute times and distances than men and provides support for the HRH. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

gender household responsibility travel behavior 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy Turner
    • 1
  • Debbie Niemeier
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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