Studies in Philosophy and Education

, Volume 16, Issue 1–2, pp 159–173 | Cite as

Scheffler Revisited on the Role of History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teacher Education

  • R. Michael Matthews
Article

Abstract

Twenty-five years ago Israel Scheffler argued for the inclusion of philosophy of science in the preparation of science teachers. It was part of his wider argument for the inclusion of courses in the philosophy of the discipline in programmes that are preparing people to teach that discipline. For the most part Scheffler's suggestion, at least as far as science education is concerned, went unheeded. Pleasingly, in recent times there has been some rapprochement between these fields. This paper will restate parts of Scheffler's argument, it will develop some additional considerations pertaining to it, and it will set the discussion in the context of contemporary debate about science, science education and teacher training. With changed time and circumstances, Scheffler' arguments might find more adherents than when they were initially proposed. My revision of Scheffler's argument has two planks: first pedagogical, second professional.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Physical Society (APS): 1986, 'Report of the Committee on Education – 1985', Bulletin of the American Physical Society 31(6), 1033–1034.Google Scholar
  2. Appleman, P. (ed.): 1970, Darwin, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bakker, G.R. and Clark, L.: 1988, Explanation: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View CA.Google Scholar
  4. Bakker, G.R. and Clark, L.: 1989, 'The Concept of Explanation: Teaching the Philosophy of Science to Science Majors'. In D.E. Herget (ed.) The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, Florida State University, pp. 23–29.Google Scholar
  5. Beardsley, T.: 1992, 'Teaching Real Science', Scientific American October, 78–86.Google Scholar
  6. Berkeley, G.: 1721/1901, De Motu, in A.C. Fraser (ed.), The Works of George Berkeley, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Bown, W.: 1993, 'Classroom Science goes into Freefall', New Scientist December, 12–13.Google Scholar
  8. British Association for the Advancement of Science: 1918, Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Murray, London. (The Thompson Report).Google Scholar
  9. Bunge, M.: 1991, 'A Critical Examination of the New Sociology of Science: Part I', Philosophy of the Social Science 21(4), 524–560.Google Scholar
  10. Bunge, M.: 1992, 'A Critical Examination of the New Sociology of Science: Part 2', Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22(1), 46–76.Google Scholar
  11. Collins, A.: 1989, 'Assessing Biology Teachers: Understanding the Nature of Science and Its Influence on the Practice of Teaching'. In D.E. Herget (ed.) The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, Florida State University, pp. 61–70.Google Scholar
  12. Devitt, M.: 1991, Realism & Truth, 2nd ed., Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Duhem, P.: 1908/1969, To Save the Phenomena: An Essay on the Idea of Physical Theory from Plato to Galileo, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  14. Duschl, R.A.: 1985, 'Science Education & Philosophy of Science, Twenty-five Years of Mutually Exclusive Development', School Science and Mathematics 87(7), 541–555.Google Scholar
  15. Eger, M.: 1987, 'Philosophy of Science in Teacher Education'. In J.D. Novak (ed.) Misconceptions and Educational Strategies, Cornell University, vol I, pp. 163–176.Google Scholar
  16. Ennis, R.H.: 1979, 'Research in Philosophy of Science Bearing on Science Education'. In P.D. Asquith and H.E. Kyburg (eds.) Current Research in Philosophy of Science, PSA, East Lansing, pp. 138–170.Google Scholar
  17. Fraassen, B.C. van: 1980, The Scientific Image, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  18. Fraser, J.W.: 1992, 'Preparing Teachers for Democratic Schools: The Holmes and Carnegie Reports Five Years Later – A Critical Reflection', Teachers College Record 94(1), 7–40.Google Scholar
  19. Good, R.G. and Wandersee, J.H.: 1992, 'A Voyage of Discovery: Designing a Graduate Course on HPST'. In S. Hills (ed.) History and Philosophy of Science in Science Education, Vol. 1, Queen's University, Kingston Ont., pp. 423–434.Google Scholar
  20. Herget, D.E. (ed.): 1989, The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL.Google Scholar
  21. Herget, D.E. (ed.): 1990, The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Teaching, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL.Google Scholar
  22. Hills, S. (ed.): 1992, The History and Philosophy of Science in Science Education, two volumes, Queen's University, Kingston.Google Scholar
  23. Kitcher, P. and Salmon, W.C. (eds.): 1989, Scientific Explanation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  24. Koulaidis, V. and Ogborn, J.: 1989, 'Philosophy of Science: An Empirical Study of Teachers' Views', International Journal of Science Education 11(2), 172–184.Google Scholar
  25. Kuhn, T.S.: 1970, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, (2nd edit.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (First edition 1962).Google Scholar
  26. Laudan, L.: 1981, 'The Pseudo-Science of Science?', Philosophy of Social Science 11, 173–198.Google Scholar
  27. Laudan, L.: 1990, Science and Relativism, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  28. Lederman, N.G. and Zeidler, D.L.: 1987, 'Science Teachers Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Do They Really Influence Teaching Behaviour?', Science Education 71(5), 721–734.Google Scholar
  29. Loving, C.C.: 1991, 'The Scientific Theory Profile: A Philosophy of Science Model for Science Teachers', Journal of Research in Science Teaching 28(9), 823–838.Google Scholar
  30. Manuel, D.E.: 1981 'Reflections on the role of History & Philosophy of Science in School Science Education', School Science Review 62(221), 769–771.Google Scholar
  31. Martin, M.: 1994, 'Pseudoscience, the Paranormal, and Science Education', Science & Education 3(4).Google Scholar
  32. Matthews, M.R.: 1990, 'History, Philosophy, and Science Teaching: What Can Be Done in an Undergraduate Course?', Studies in Philosophy and Education 10(1), 93–98.Google Scholar
  33. Matthews, M.R.: 1994, Science Teaching: The Role of History and Philosophy of Science, Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Matthews, M.R. (ed.): 1989, The Scientific Background to Modern Philosophy, Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis.Google Scholar
  35. Matthews, M.R. (ed.): 1991, History, Philosophy and Science Teaching: Selected Readings, OISE Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer, J.: 1987, 'Consequences of a Weak Science Education', Boston Globe September.Google Scholar
  37. Peters, R.S.: 1966, Ethics and Education, George Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  38. Pumfrey, S., Rossi, P.L. and Slawinski, M. (eds.): 1991, Science, Culture and Popular Belief in Renaissance Europe, Manchester University Press, Manchester.Google Scholar
  39. Robinson, J.T.: 1969, 'Philosophy of Science: Implications for Teacher Education', Journal of Research in Science Teaching 6, 99–104.Google Scholar
  40. Rowell, J.A. and Cawthron, E.R.: 1982, 'Images of Science: An Empirical Study', European Journal of Science Education 4(1), 79–94.Google Scholar
  41. Russell, B.: 1961, 'Education'. In R.E. Egner & L.E. Denonn (eds.), The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, Simon & Schuster, New York, pp. 401–412.Google Scholar
  42. Rutherford, F.J. & Ahlgren, A.: 1990, Science for All Americans, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Scheffler, I.: 1963, The Anatomy of Inquiry, Bobbs-Merrill, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  44. Scheffler, I.: 1970, 'Philosophy and the Curriculum'. In his Reason and Teaching, London, Routledge, 1973, pp. 31–44. Reprinted in Science & Education 1(4), 385–394.Google Scholar
  45. Science Council of Canada (SCC): 1984, Science for Every Student: Educating Canadians for Tomorrow's World, Report 36, SCC, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  46. Shulman, L.S.: 1986, 'Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching', Educational Researcher 15(2), 4–14.Google Scholar
  47. Slezak, P.: 1989, 'Scientific Discovery by Computer as Empirical Refutation of the Strong Programme', Social Studies of Science 19, 563–600Google Scholar
  48. Slezak, P.: 1994, 'Sociology of Science and Science Education: Part 1', Science & Education 3(3), 265–294.Google Scholar
  49. Slezak, P.: 1994, 'Sociology of Science and Science Education: Part 11', Science & Education 3(4).Google Scholar
  50. Stinner, A. and Williams, H.: 1993, 'Conceptual Change, History and Science Stories', Interchange 24(1–2), 87–104.Google Scholar
  51. Stove, D.C.: 1991, The Plato Cult and Other Philosophical Follies, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  52. Summers, M.K.: 1982, 'Philosophy of Science in the Science Teacher Education Curriculum' European Journal of Science Education 4, 19–28.Google Scholar
  53. Tozer, S., Anderson, T.H., and Armbruster, B.B. (eds.): 1990, Foundational Studies in Teacher Education: A Reexamination, Teachers College Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Westaway, F.W.: 1929, Science Teaching, Blackie and Son, London.Google Scholar
  55. Yager, R.E. and Penick, J.E.: 1990, 'Science Teacher Education'. In W.R. Houston (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, Macmillan, New York, pp. 657–673.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Michael Matthews
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education StudiesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations