Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 101, Issue 1–4, pp 399–410 | Cite as

Temporal Changes in Cadmium, Thallium, and Vanadium Mobility in Soil and Phytoavailability under Field Conditions

  • H. W. MartinEmail author
  • D. I. Kaplan


A field study was conducted over a 30 mo period to examine movement of Cd, Tl, and V through the profile of a Coastal Plain soil (Typic Kandiudult) and the availability of these trace metals to bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. The metals were applied to field plots as dissolved salts and mixed into the surface 7.5 cm. The greatest concentration of all three metals was observed in the surface soils, with a steep decrease occurring down to the 7.5 to 15 cm depth. Thallium was the most mobile of the three metals; approximately 15% of the applied Tl and <3% of the applied Cd and V moved below the surface 7.5-cm region during the 30-mo experiment. Extractable concentrations of all three metals in the surface soils decreased significantly (P ≤0.05) during the initial 18 mo after treatment. No further decrease occurred between 18 and 30 mo. The presence of Al- and Fe-oxides and small amounts of clay minerals and organic matter in this highly-weathered, low cation-exchange soil were likely responsible for the retention of the trace metals. Bioavailability, as measured by concentrations and total amounts of metals in root and aboveground tissues of plants, did not change significantly between 18 and 30 mo. These data suggest that bioavailability of Cd, Tl, and V decreased over time as a result of transformation of these elements into unavailable forms and not to leaching. These changes in bioavailability occurred soon after application, becoming negligible after 18 mo.

bioavailability bush bean cadmium contamination heavy metal industrial waste mobility Phaseolus vulgaris sandy soil Savannah River Site soil thallium vanadium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adriano, D. C.: 1986, Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment, Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York, p. 470.Google Scholar
  2. Adriano, D. C., Page, A. L., Elseewi, A. A. and Chang, A. C.: 1982, J. Environ. Qual. 11, 197.Google Scholar
  3. Baes, C. R. and Mesmer, R. E.: 1976, The Hydrolysis of Cations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 295.Google Scholar
  4. Balistrieri, L. S. and Murray, J. W.: 1982, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46, 1253.Google Scholar
  5. Benjamin, J. J. and Leckie, J. O.: 1980, Adsorption of Metals at Oxide Interfaces: Effects on the Concentrations of Adsorbate and Competing Metals, in: R. A. Baker (ed.), Contaminants and Sediments, Vol. 2. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, p. 305.Google Scholar
  6. Bloomfield, C. and Kelso, W. I.: 1973, J. Soil Sci. 24, 368.Google Scholar
  7. Carlson, R. W., Bazzaz, F. A. and Rolfe, G. L.: 1975, Environ. Res. 10, 113.Google Scholar
  8. Cavallaro, N. and McBride, M. B.: 1978, Soil Sci. Soc. Am J. 42, 550.Google Scholar
  9. Council on Soil Testing and Plant Analysis: 1980, Handbook on Reference Methods for Soil Testing, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA, p. 231.Google Scholar
  10. Coffin, D. E.: 1963, Can. J. Soil Sci. 43, 7.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, R. D., Beckett, P. J. R. and Wollan, E.: 1978, Plant Soil 49, 295.Google Scholar
  12. Gee, G. W. and Bauder, J. W.: 1986, Particle-size Analysis, in: A. Klute (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, p. 383.Google Scholar
  13. Heinrichs, H. and Keltsch, H.: 1982, Anal. Chem. 54, 1211.Google Scholar
  14. Heinrichs, H. and Mayers, R.: 1977, J. Environ. Qual. 6, 401.Google Scholar
  15. Kaplan, D. I., Adriano, D. C. and Carlson, C. L.: 1990a, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 49, 81.Google Scholar
  16. Kaplan, D. I., Adriano, D. C. and Sajwan, K. S.: 1990b, J. Environ. Qual. 19, 359 (and Errata, J. Environ. Qual. 21, 156).Google Scholar
  17. Koeppe, D. E.: 1977, Sci. Total Environ. 7, 197.Google Scholar
  18. McBride, M. B., Tyler, L. D. and Hovde, D. A.: 1981, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 739.Google Scholar
  19. Milberg, R. P., Brower, D. L. and Lagerwerff, J. V.: 1978, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 892.Google Scholar
  20. Mumma, R. O., Raupach, D. C., Waldman, J. P., Tong, S. S., Jacobs, M. L., Babish, J. G., Hotchkiss, J. H., Wszolek, P. C., Gutenmann, W. H., Bache, C. A. and Lisk, D. J.: 1984, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13, 75.Google Scholar
  21. Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.W.: 1982, Total Carbon, Organic Carbon, and Organic Matter, in: A. Klute (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd Ed., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, p. 539.Google Scholar
  22. Peterson, P. J. and Girling, C. A.: 1981, Other Trace Metals, in: Lepp, N. W. (ed.), Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Plants. Vol. 1. Effects of Trace Metals on Plant Function, Applied Science Pub., London, p. 213.Google Scholar
  23. Rai, D. and Zachara, J. M.: 1984, Chemical Attenuation Rates, Coefficients, and Constants in Leachate Migration. Volume 1: A Critical Review, EA-3356. Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. p. B-17.Google Scholar
  24. Singh, B. and Sekhon, G. S.: 1977, J. Soil Sci. 28, 271.Google Scholar
  25. Stumm, W. and Morgan, J. J.: 1981, Aquatic Chemistry. 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 671.Google Scholar
  26. Turton, A. G. and Mulcahy, M. J.: 1962, The Chemistry and Mineralogy of Lateritic Soils in the South-west of Western Australia, C.S.I.R.O., Aust. Div. Soils, Soil Publ. No. 20, Sydney, p. 67.Google Scholar
  27. Weigno, A.: 1983, Anal. Chem. 55, 2043.Google Scholar
  28. Whittig, L. D. and Allardice, W. L.: 1986, X-ray Diffraction Techniques, in: A. Klute (ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. 2nd Ed., Agronomy Society of America, Madison, WI, p. 331.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Savannah River Ecology LaboratoryThe University of Georgia, Biogeochemistry DivisionAikenU.S.A. E-mail

Personalised recommendations