Plant and Soil

, Volume 228, Issue 1, pp 117–129

Advances in micrometeorological methods for the measurement and interpretation of gas and particle nitrogen fluxes

  • David Fowler
  • Mhairi Coyle
  • Chris Flechard
  • Ken Hargreaves
  • Eiko Nemitz
  • Robert Storeton-West
  • Mark Sutton
  • Jan-Willem Erisman
Article

Abstract

The application of micrometeorology for flux measurements of nitrogen species between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and some of their main limitations are reviewed. New methods which are gaining rapid acceptance such as relaxed eddy accumulation are also described. A new development to provide long term average fluxes by time averaged gradients is shown to yield long-term average NH3 fluxes over moorland within 10% of values obtained using continuous wet denuder methods and at less than 10% of the cost. The use of mass balance methods to quantify fluxes at the plot, landscape and regional scale are described, and show that in suitable conditions and for some countries, methods to check national inventories of radiatively active gases are now available.

ammonia deposition emission micrometeorology nitrogen oxides 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Fowler
    • 1
  • Mhairi Coyle
    • 1
  • Chris Flechard
    • 2
  • Ken Hargreaves
    • 1
  • Eiko Nemitz
    • 1
  • Robert Storeton-West
    • 1
  • Mark Sutton
    • 1
  • Jan-Willem Erisman
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush EstatePenicuik, MidlothianUK
  2. 2.ECORC, Agriculture & Agri-food CanadaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.ECNThe Netherlands

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