Advances in micrometeorological methods for the measurement and interpretation of gas and particle nitrogen fluxes
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- Fowler, D., Coyle, M., Flechard, C. et al. Plant and Soil (2001) 228: 117. doi:10.1023/A:1004871511282
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The application of micrometeorology for flux measurements of nitrogen species between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and some of their main limitations are reviewed. New methods which are gaining rapid acceptance such as relaxed eddy accumulation are also described. A new development to provide long term average fluxes by time averaged gradients is shown to yield long-term average NH3 fluxes over moorland within 10% of values obtained using continuous wet denuder methods and at less than 10% of the cost. The use of mass balance methods to quantify fluxes at the plot, landscape and regional scale are described, and show that in suitable conditions and for some countries, methods to check national inventories of radiatively active gases are now available.