Advertisement

Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 493–534 | Cite as

The Specimen Dealer: Entrepreneurial Natural History in America's Gilded Age

  • Mark V. BarrowJr.
Article

Abstract

The post-Civil War American natural history craze spawned a new institution – the natural history dealer – that has failed to receive the historical attention it deserves. The individuals who created these enterprises simultaneously helped to promote and hoped to profit from the burgeoning interest in both scientific and popular specimen collecting. At a time when other employment and educational prospects in natural history were severely limited, hundreds of dealers across the nation provided encouragement, specimens, publication outlets, training opportunities, and jobs for naturalists of all motivations and levels of expertise. This paper explores the crucial role that specimen dealers played in the larger natural history community. After briefly examining the development of local taxidermy shops in the mid-nineteenth century, it then traces the history of four large natural history dealerships established in the United States during the latter half of the century: Ward's Natural History Establishment, Frank Blake Webster's Naturalists' Supply Depot, Southwick & Jencks' Natural History Store, and Frank H. Lattin & Co. By the early twentieth century, changing tastes in interior design, the growth of the Audubon movement, and the dramatic expansion of alternate training and job opportunities for naturalists led many specimen dealers either to shift their emphasis or to shut their doors.

natural history specimen dealers entrepreneurial natural history merchant naturalists natural history dealers taxidermy taxidermists collecting Henry A. Ward Frank B. Webster James M. Southwick Fred T. Jencks Frank H. Lattin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, R. Tucker (ed.). 1973. American Malacologists. Falls Church, Va.: American Malacologists.Google Scholar
  2. — 1975. American Malacologists: 1975 Supplement. Greenville, Del.: American Malacologists.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, Garland. 1978. Life Science in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, J. A. 1895. “J. W. P. Jenks.” The Auk 12: 94.Google Scholar
  5. — 1904. “James Mortimer Southwick.” The Auk 21: 511.Google Scholar
  6. — 1916. Autobiographical Notes and Bibliography of Scientific Publications. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, David E. 1994. The Naturalist in Britain: A Social History, reprint ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous. 1883. “Editorial Notes.” Ward' Natural Science Bulletin 2(1): 2.Google Scholar
  9. — 1885. “How a Trade was Chosen by the Throwing of a Stone.” In The Oologist' Directory, ed. H.W. Davis and Geo. C. Baker, pp. 16-17. Columbus, Ohio: Hahn & Adair.Google Scholar
  10. — 1886. “Editorial.” Ornithologist and Oologist 11: 168.Google Scholar
  11. — 1890. “Notes and News: Entomological Gleanings from All Quarters of the Globe.” Entomological News 1: 57.Google Scholar
  12. — 1892. “A Visit to Ward'.” The Nautilus 6: 91-94.Google Scholar
  13. — 1894a. “He Was a Farmer' Son: A Biographical Sketch of a Rising Young Naturalist.” The Farmers' Monthly (August 1894).Google Scholar
  14. — 1894b. An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Field Columbian Museum. Field Columbian Museum, Publication no. 1. Chicago: Field Columbian Museum.Google Scholar
  15. — 1904. “From a Worcester, Mass., Newspaper.” The Oologist 21: 137-138.Google Scholar
  16. — 1922. “Was an Ornithologist.” Boston Evening Transcript, November 7, 1922.Google Scholar
  17. Appel, Toby A. 1980. “Science, Popular Culture, and Profit: Peale' Philadelphia Museum.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9: 619-634.Google Scholar
  18. Barrow, Mark V., Jr. 1992. “Birds and Boundaries: Community, Practice, and Conservation in North American Ornithology.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  19. — 1995. “Gentlemanly Specialists in the Age of Professionalization: The First Century of Ornithology at Harvard' Museum of Comparative Zoology.” In Contributions to the History of North American Ornithology, ed. William E. Davis, Jr., and Jerome A. Jackson, pp. 55-94. Cambridge, Mass.: Nuttall Ornithological Club.Google Scholar
  20. — 1998. A Passion for Birds: American Ornithology after Audubon. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bates, Frank A. 1891. “Reminiscences.” Ornithologist and Oologist 16: 177-179.Google Scholar
  22. Batty, Joseph H. 1880. Practical Taxidermy and Home Decoration. New York: Orange Judd Co.Google Scholar
  23. Benson, Keith R. 1988. “From Museum Research to Laboratory Biology: The Transformation of Natural History into Academic Biology.” In: The American Development of Biology, ed. Ronald Rainger, Keith R. Benson, and Jane Maienschein, pp. 49-83. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  24. — 1994. “The Darwinian Legacy in the Pacific Northwest: Seattle' Young Naturalists' Society, P. Brooks Randolph, and Conchology.” In Darwin' Laboratory: Evolutionary Theory and Natural History in the Pacific, ed. Roy MacLeod and Philip E. Rehbock, pp. 212-238. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  25. Benson, Maxine. 1986. Martha Maxwell, Rocky Mountain Naturalist. Lincoln: University ofNebraska Press.Google Scholar
  26. Bicknell, E. P. 1924. “The Status of the Black Gyrfalcon as a Long Island Bird.” The Auk 41: 65.Google Scholar
  27. Blum, Ann Shelby. 1993. Picturing Nature: American Nineteenth-Century Zoological Illustration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Blumin, Stuart M. 1989. The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Bodry-Sanders, Penelope. 1991. Carl Akeley: Africa' Collector, Africa' Savior. New York: Paragon House.Google Scholar
  30. Borell, Merriley. 1989. Album of Science: The Biological Sciences in the Twentieth Century. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  31. Bowers, William L. 1974. The Country Life Movement in America, 1900-1920. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press.Google Scholar
  32. Brigham, David. 1995. Public Culture in the Early Republic: Peale' Museum and Its Audience. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  33. Brockway, Lucille H. 1979. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Browne, Janet. 1996. “Biogeography and Empire.” In Cultures of Natural History, ed. N. Jardine, J. A. Secord, and E. C. Spary, pp. 305-321. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Brumsted, Harlan, et al. 1994. Voices from Connecticut Hill: Recollections of Cornell Wildlife Students, 1930-1942. Ithaca, N.Y.: College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  36. Bullock, William. 1829. A Concise and Easy Method of Preserving Objects of Natural History; Intended for the Use of Sportsmen, Travellers and Others. New York: Printed for the Publisher.Google Scholar
  37. Burns, Frank L. 1915. “A Bibliography of Scarce or Out of Print North American Amateur and Trade Periodicals Devoted More or Less to Ornithology.” Supplement to The Oologist 32: 1-32.Google Scholar
  38. — 1933. “John Krider: A Typical Professional Collector, 1838-1878.” The Oologist 50: 74-80.Google Scholar
  39. Camerini, Jane R. 1996. “Wallace in the Field.” In Science in the Field, Osiris vol. 11, ed. Henrika Kuklick and Robert E. Kohler, pp. 44-65. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Cassino, Samuel (ed.). 1877. The Naturalists' Directory. Salem, Mass.: The Naturalists' Agency.Google Scholar
  41. Chalmers-Hunt, J. M. (ed.). 1976. Natural History Auctions, 1700-1972: A Register of Sales in the British Isles. London: Sotheby Parke Bernet.Google Scholar
  42. Coleman, William. 1977. Biology in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Collier, Donald. 1969. “Chicago Comes of Age: The World' Columbian Exposition and the Birth of the Field Museum.” Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 40 (May): 3-7.Google Scholar
  44. Coues, Elliott. 1874. Field Ornithology. Salem, Mass.: Naturalists' Agency.Google Scholar
  45. Cutright, Paul Russell. 1985. Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Conservationist. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  46. C[hapman], F[rank] M. 1890. “John G. Bell.” The Auk 6: 98-99.Google Scholar
  47. Dance, S. Peter. 1986. A History of Shell Collecting. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  48. Deiss, William A. 1980. “Spencer F. Baird and His Collectors.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9: 636-645.Google Scholar
  49. Dexter, Ralph. 1970. “The Role of F. W. Putnam in the Founding of the Field Museum.” Curator 13: 21-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dolph, James A. 1975. “Bringing Wildlife to Millions: William Temple Hornaday/ The Early Years: 1854-1896.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  51. Doughty, Robin. 1975. Feather Fashions and Bird Preservation: A Study in Nature Protection. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  52. Dunlap, Thomas R. 1988. Saving America' Wildlife. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  53. — 1999. Nature and the English Diaspora: Environment and History in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Dupree, A. Hunter. 1957. Science in the Federal Government: A History of Policies and Activities to 1940. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Elliott, Clark. 1979. Biographical Dictionary of American Science: The Seventeenth through the Nineteenth Centuries. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  56. Elsner, John, and Cardinal, Roger (eds.). 1994. The Cultures of Collecting. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Emerson, W. Otto. 1911. “Joseph Marshall Wade: An Appreciation.” The Oologist 28: 158-161.Google Scholar
  58. Evans, Mary Alice and Evans, Howard Ensign. 1970. William Morton Wheeler, Biologist. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Farber, Paul Lawrence. 1977. “The Development of Taxidermy and the History of Ornithology.” Isis 68: 550-566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. — 1982. The Emergence of Ornithology as a Scientific Discipline, 1760-1850. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.Google Scholar
  61. Fisher, A. K. 1925. “Walter Bradford Barrows.” The Auk 42: 1-14.Google Scholar
  62. Flint, Richard W. 1996. “American Showmen and European Dealers: Commerce in Wild Animals in Nineteenth-Century America.” In New Worlds, New Animals: From Menagerie to Zoological Park in the Nineteenth Century, ed. R. J. Hoage and William A. Deiss, pp. 97-108. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Fox, William J. 1908. “A List of American Journals Omitted from Bolton' 'Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals, 1665-1895.” Bulletin of Bibliography 5(5): 82-85.Google Scholar
  64. Fries, Waldemar H. 1973. “Birds of America.” American Library Association.Google Scholar
  65. Frost, C. C. 1987. A History of British Taxidermy. Sudbury: The Enchanted Aviary.Google Scholar
  66. Fuller, Wayne. 1972. The American Mail: Enlarger of Common Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  67. Gates, Barbara T. 1998. Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Gascoigne, John. 1998. Science in the Service in Empire: Joseph Banks, the British State and the Uses of Science in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Geiger, Roger L. 1986. To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research Universities, 1900-1940. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. George, Wilma. 1980. “Alfred Wallace, the Gentle Trader: Collecting in Amazonia and the Malay Archipelago, 1848-1862.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9: 503-514.Google Scholar
  71. Goldstein, Daniel. 1994. “ 'Yours for Science': The Smithsonian Institution' Correspondents and the Shape of the Scientific Community in Nineteenth-Century America.” Isis 85: 573-599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. — 1998. “The Landscape of Science in Nineteenth-Century America.” Unpublished paper presented at the History of Science Society Annual Meeting, Kansas City, Missouri.Google Scholar
  73. Graham, Frank, Jr. 1990. The Audubon Ark: A History of the National Audubon Society. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  74. Grant, C. L. 1920. “Frank H. Lattin.” The Oologist 37: 71-72.Google Scholar
  75. Green, Harvey. 1983. Light of the Home: An Intimate View of the Lives of Women in Victorian America. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  76. Greir, Katherine. 1988. Culture and Comfort: People, Parlors, and Upholstery, 1850-1930. Rochester, N.Y.: Strong Museum.Google Scholar
  77. — 1992. “The Decline of the Memory Palace: The Parlor after 1890.” In American Home Life, 1880-1930: A Social History of Spaces and Services, ed. Jessica H. Foy and Thomas J. Schlereth, pp. 49-74. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  78. Hays, Samuel P. 1959. Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hellman, Geoffroy. 1968. Bankers, Bones and Beetles: The First Century of the American Museum of Natural History. Garden City, N.Y.: The Natural History Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  80. Henson, Pamela M. 1997. “ 'Through Books to Nature': Anna Botsford Comstock and the Nature Study Movement.” In Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science, ed. Barbara T. Gates and Ann B. Shteir, pp. 116-143. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  81. Hoffmeister, Donald F. and Sterling, Keir B. 1994 “Origin.” In Seventy-Five Years of Mammology (1919-1994), ed. Elmer C. Birney and Jerry R. Choate, pp. 1-21. Provo, Utah: American Society of Mammalogists.Google Scholar
  82. Holmes, Frank R. (ed.). 1924. Who' Who in New York (City and State) 1924, 8th ed. New York: Who' Who Publications.Google Scholar
  83. Hornaday, William T. 1896. “The King of the Museum-Builders.” The Commercial Travelers Home Magazine 6: 147-159.Google Scholar
  84. Hunter, Clark. 1983. The Life and Letters of Alexander Wilson. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.Google Scholar
  85. Huth, Hans. 1957. Nature and the American: Three Centuries of Changing Attitudes. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  86. Jackson, John H. 1894. “Oology vs. Philately.” The Oologist 11: 280.Google Scholar
  87. Jardine, N., Secord, J. A., Spary, E. C. (eds.). 1996. Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. [Jencks, Fred T.] 1884. “The Roseate Spoonbill in Florida.” Random Notes on Natural History 1 (3): 4; (4): 7; (5): 4-5; (6): 4.Google Scholar
  89. Jenks, John Whipple Potter. 1887. “Hunting in Florida in 1874.” Forest and Stream 29: 323-325, 344-345, 362, 384-385, 402-403, 424-425.Google Scholar
  90. Keeney, Elizabeth B. 1992. The Botanizers: Amateur Scientists in Nineteenth-Century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  91. Keep, Josiah. 1888. “Cabinet Notes.” The Conchologists' Exchange 2(8): 107-108.Google Scholar
  92. — 1890. “A Word to Young Collectors.” The Nautilus 3(10): 115-117.Google Scholar
  93. Kennedy, John Michael. 1968. “Philanthropy and Science in New York City: The American Museum of Natural History.” Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  94. Kohler, Robert. 1990. “The Ph.D. Machine: Building on the Collegiate Base.” Isis 81: 638-662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kohlstedt, Sally G. 1980. “Henry A. Ward: The Merchant Naturalist and American Museum Development.” Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 9: 647-661.Google Scholar
  96. — 1997. “Nature Study in North America and Australia, 1890-1945: International Connections and Local Implementations.” Historical Records of Australian Science 11: 439-454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kraus, Edward H. 1958. “Albert E. Foote, the Naturalist-A Michigan Alumnus.” Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review 64(21): 342-347.Google Scholar
  98. Lattin, Frank H. 1884. “The Knights of Audubon.” The Young Oologist 1: 163-164.Google Scholar
  99. — 1885. The Oologists' Hand-Book. 1885. Catalogue of American Birds' Eggs, and Oological Supplies. Rochester, N.Y.: John P. Smith.Google Scholar
  100. [—] 1886. “Jottings.” The Oologist 3: 48.Google Scholar
  101. [—] 1887. “Jottings.” The Oologist 4: 104-105.Google Scholar
  102. — 1889. “Oliver Davie' Eggs.” The Oologist 6: 43.Google Scholar
  103. — 1892. The Standard Catalogue of North American Birds Eggs, 3rd ed. Albion, N.Y.: Frank H. Lattin.Google Scholar
  104. — 1893. “To My Friends and Patrons.” The Oologist 10: 153.Google Scholar
  105. — 1894. “20,000 March Oologists.” The Oologist 11: 37-40.Google Scholar
  106. — 1895. “To My Friends and Patrons.” The Oologist 12(6): xii.Google Scholar
  107. —1896. The Standard Catalogue of North American Birds Eggs, 4th ed. Albion, N.Y.Google Scholar
  108. — 1899. [Letter to Subscribers of the Oologist]. The Oologist 16: following p. 108.Google Scholar
  109. Lucas, Frederic A. 1933. Fifty Years of Museum Work: Autobiography, Unpublished Papers, and Bibliography. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  110. Lurie, Edward. 1960. Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  111. Lutts, Ralph H. 1990. The Nature Fakers: Wildlife, Science, and Sentiment. Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum Publishing.Google Scholar
  112. Maienschein, Jane. 1991. Transforming Traditions in American Biology, 1880-1915. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Malcolm, James (ed.). 1918. The New York Red Book. Albany, N.Y.: J. B. Lyon Co.Google Scholar
  114. — (ed.). 1930. The New York Red Book. Albany, N.Y.: J. B. Lyon Co.Google Scholar
  115. M[ann], B. P[ickman]. 1885. “Herbert Knowles Morrison.” Pysche 4: 287.Google Scholar
  116. Martin, Albro. 1992. Railroads Triumphant: The Growth, Rejection, and Rebirth of a Vital American Force. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Maynard, C. J. 1888. “A Letter to Oologists of America.” The Oologist 5: 15.Google Scholar
  118. Mearns, Barbara and Mearns, Richard. 1992. Audubon to Xántus: The Lives of those Commemorated in North American Bird Names. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  119. — 1998. The Bird Collectors. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  120. Mighetto, Lisa. 1991. Wild Animals and Environmental Ethics. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  121. Mitchell, E. C. 1904. “The Collecting Habit.” The Oologist 21: 25-26.Google Scholar
  122. Morris, P. A. 1993. “An Historical Review of Bird Taxidermy in Britain.” Archives of Natural History 20: 241-255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Morrison, Theodore. 1974. Chautauqua: A Center for Education, Religion, and the Arts in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  124. Muensterberger, Werner. 1994. Collecting: An Unruly Passion. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Murphy, R. C. 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  126. Nash, Roderick. 1982. Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Novak, Barbara. 1980. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825-1875. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  128. O'Hara, James E. 1995. “Henry Walter Bates: His Life and Contributions to Biology.” Archives of Natural History 22: 195-219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Osborne, Michael A. 1994. Nature, the Exotic, and the Science of French Colonialism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Palmer, T. S. 1944. “Harry Alvin Cash.” The Auk 61: 510.Google Scholar
  131. — 1951. “George Kruck Cherrie.” The Auk 68: 260-261.Google Scholar
  132. Pauly, Philip J. 1984. “The Appearance of Academic Biology in Late Nineteenth-Century America.” Journal of the History of Biology 17: 369-397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. — 1996. “The Beauty and Menace of the Japanese Cherry Trees: Conflicting Visions of American Ecological Independence.” Isis 87: 51-73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. P[ilsbury], H. A. 1928. “William D. Averell.” The Nautilus 42(1): 33.Google Scholar
  135. Pitelka, Frank A. 1986. “Rollo Beck-Old-School Collector, Member of an Endangered Species.” American Birds 40: 385-387.Google Scholar
  136. Porter, Charlotte M. 1986. The Eagle' Nest: Natural History and American Ideas, 1812-1842. University: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  137. Porter, Gene Stratton. 1909. A Girl of the Limberlost. New York: Grosset and Dunlap.Google Scholar
  138. Preble, Edward A. 1923. “Death of Frank BlakeWebster.” Journal of Mammalogy 4: 196-197.Google Scholar
  139. Putnam, Frederic Ward (ed.). 1865. The Naturalists' Directory. Salem, Mass.: Essex Institute Press.Google Scholar
  140. Rainger, Ronald. 1991. An Agenda for Antiquity: Henry Fairfield Osborn and Vertebrate Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History, 1890-1935. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  141. Reed, Charles K. and Reed, Chester A. 1908. Guide to Taxidermy. Worcester, Mass.: Chas. K. Reed.Google Scholar
  142. Reiger, John F. 1975. American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation. New York: Winchester Press.Google Scholar
  143. Ridgway, Robert. 1901. “Ornithology.” In Report of the Committee on Awards of the World' Columbian Commission. Special Reports upon Special Subjects or Groups, vol. 2, p. 1313. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  144. Ritvo, Harriet. 1987. The Animal Estate: The English and Other Victorian Creatures. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Rivinus, E. F. and Youssef, E. M. 1992. Spencer Baird of the Smithsonian. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  146. Rodgers, Daniel T. 1978. The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850-1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  147. Rogers, Katherine. 1991. A Dinosaur Dynasty: The Sternberg Fossil Hunters. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press Publishing.Google Scholar
  148. Rogers, Stephen P., Schmidt, Mary Ann, and Güterbier, Thomas (eds.). 1989. An Annotated Bibliography on Preparation, Taxidermy, and Collection Management of Vertebrates with Emphasis on Birds. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  149. Rothschild, Miriam. 1983. Dear Lord Rothschild: Birds, Butterflies and History. Glenside, Penn.: Balaban Publishers.Google Scholar
  150. Scholfield, Robert. 1989. “The Science Education of an Enlightened Entrepreneur: Charles Willson Peale and His Philadelphia Museum, 1784-1827.” American Studies 30: 21-40.Google Scholar
  151. Schorger, A. W. 1952. “Walter Allen Angell.” The Auk 69: 223.Google Scholar
  152. Scott, W. E. D. 1904. The Story of a Bird-Lover. New York: Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  153. Sellers, Charles Colman. 1980. Mr. Peale' Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  154. Shi, David. 1985. The Simple Life: Plain Living and High Thinking in American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Sorensen, W. Conner. 1995. Brethren of the Net: American Entomology, 1840-1880. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  156. Star, Susan Leigh. 1992. “Craft vs. Commodity, Mess vs. Transcendence: How the Right Tool Became theWrong One in the Case of Taxidermy and Natural History.” In The Right Tools for the Job: At Work in the Twentieth-Century Life Sciences, ed. Adele E., Clarke and Joan H. Fujimura, pp. 257-286. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Sterling, Keir B. 1974. The Last of the Naturalists: The Career of C. Hart Merriam. New York: Arno Press.Google Scholar
  158. Steward, Susan. 1984. On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, and the Collection. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  159. Stover, John F. 1978. American Railroads. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  160. [Southwick, James M.] 1886. Random Notes on Natural History 3(12): 1.Google Scholar
  161. Sulloway, Frank. 1982. “Darwin and His Finches: The Evolution of A Legend.” Journal of the History of Biology 15: 1-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tebbel, John. 1975. The Expansion of an Industry, 1865-1919, vol. 2 of A History of Book Publishing in the United States. New York: R. R. Bowker.Google Scholar
  163. Tober, James. 1981. Who Owns Wildlife?: The Political Economy of Conservation in Nineteenth-Century America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  164. Townsend, Charles H. 1927. “Old Times with the Birds: Autobiographical Notes.” Condor 29: 224-232.Google Scholar
  165. — 1930. “In Memoriam: Frederick Augustas Lucas.” The Auk 47: 147-158.Google Scholar
  166. Trachtenberg, Alan. 1982. The Incorporation of American: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  167. Trotter, Spencer. 1912. “In the Days before the Club: Some Philadelphia Bird Collections and Collectors.” Cassinia 16: 26-32.Google Scholar
  168. — 1914. “Some Old Philadelphia Bird Collectors and Taxidermists.” Cassinia 18: 1-8.Google Scholar
  169. Turner, James. 1990. Reckoning with the Beast: Animals, Pain, and Humanity in the Victorian Mind. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Underwood, Margaret Hanselman. 1954. Bibliography of North American Natural History Serials in the University of Michigan Libraries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  171. Van Trump, James D. 1959. “The Urn and the Tree: A Commentary on the Early Days of Carnegie Museum.” Carnegie Magazine 33: 169-174.Google Scholar
  172. Vesey, Laurence R. 1965. The Emergence of the American University. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  173. Ward, Henry A. 1884. “The Milwaukee City Museum.” Ward' Natural Science Bulletin 3: 15.Google Scholar
  174. Ward, Roswell H. 1948. Henry A. Ward: Museum Builder to America, The Rochester Historical Society Publications, vol. 24. Rochester, N.Y.: Published by the Society.Google Scholar
  175. Webb, Walter F. 1893. “An Announcement.” The Oologist 10: 159.Google Scholar
  176. — 1895. Ornithologists' and Oologists' Manual: Consisting of a Complete List of All North American Birds, with Price of All Their Eggs and Skins-Supplies, Recipes, Etc. Albion, N.Y.: Webb.Google Scholar
  177. Webster, Frank B. 1890. “Natural History Business.” Ornithologist and Oologist 15: 168-170.Google Scholar
  178. — 1892. “Removal.” Ornithologist and Oologist 17: 95.Google Scholar
  179. Weiner, Jonathan. 1996. The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  180. Welch, Margaret. 1998. The Book of Nature: Natural History in the United States, 1825-1875. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  181. [Willard, Samuel L.] 1881. “The Oologist: Its History from the Commencement.” Ornithologist and Oologist 6: 1-3.Google Scholar
  182. Winsor, Mary P. 1991. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  183. Wonders, Karen E. 1993. “Bird Taxidermy and the Origin of the Habitat Diorama.” In Non-Verbal Communication in Science prior to 1900, ed. Renato G. Mazzolini, pp. 411-447. Firenze: Olschki.Google Scholar
  184. Worster, Donald. 1985. Nature' Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  185. Young, Christian C. 1997. “The Development of Wildlife Biology in America: Maintaining Nature on the Kaibab Plateau.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark V. BarrowJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of History (0117)Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations