Quality and Quantity

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 331–351 | Cite as

Imputation of Missing Item Responses: Some Simple Techniques

  • Mark Huisman


Among the wide variety of procedures to handle missing data, imputingthe missing values is a popular strategy to deal with missing itemresponses. In this paper some simple and easily implemented imputationtechniques like item and person mean substitution, and somehot-deck procedures, are investigated. A simulation study was performed based on responses to items forming a scale to measure a latent trait ofthe respondents. The effects of different imputation procedures onthe estimation of the latent ability of the respondents wereinvestigated, as well as the effect on the estimation of Cronbach'salpha (indicating the reliability of the test) and Loevinger'sH-coefficient (indicating scalability). The results indicate thatprocedures which use the relationships between items perform best,although they tend to overestimate the scale quality.

missing data mean imputation hot-deck imputation item response theory simulation 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Huisman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Statistics, Measurement Theory, & Information TechnologyFPPSW, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

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