Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 35, Issue 8, pp 1857–1866

Effect of strain rate on stepwise fatigue and creep slow crack growth in high density polyethylene

  • M. Parsons
  • E. V. Stepanov
  • A. Hiltner
  • E. Baer
Article

Abstract

The effects of frequency and R-ratio (the ratio of minimum to maximum stress in the fatigue loading cycle) on the kinetics of step-wise crack propagation in fatigue and creep of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was characterized. Stepwise crack growth was observed over the entire range of frequency and R-ratio examined. A model relating crack growth rate to stress intensity factor parameters and applied strain rate was proposed by considering the total crack growth rate to consist of contributions from creep and fatigue loading components. The creep contribution in a fatigue test was calculated from the sinusoidal loading curve and the known dependence of creep crack growth on stress intensity factor in polyethylene. At a very low frequency of 0.01 Hz, fatigue crack growth rate was found to be completely controlled by creep processes. Comparison of the frequency and R-ratio tests revealed that the fatigue loading component depended on strain rate. Therefore, crack growth rate could be modeled with a creep contribution that depended only on the stress intensity factor parameters and a fatigue contribution that depended on strain rate.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Brown and X. Lu, in Proceedings of the 12th Plastic Fuel Gas Pipe Symposium, Boston, MA, 1991, p. 128.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Zhou and N. Brown, Polym. Eng. Sci. 33 (1993) 1421.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y. Zhou, X. Lu and N. Brown, ibid. 31 (1991) 711.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Parsons, E. V. Stepanov, A. Hiltner and E. Baer, J. Mater. Sci. 34 (1999) 3315.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Shah, E. V. Stepanov, G. Capaccio, A. Hiltner and E. Baer, J. Polym. Sci: Part B: Polym. Phys. 36 (1998) 2355.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Shah, E. V. Stepanov, M. Klein, A. Hiltner and E. Baer, J. Mat. Sci. 33 (1998) 3313.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Shah, E. V. Stepanov, M. Klein, A. Hiltner and E. Baer, in 1997 Symposium on Plastic Piping Systems for Gas Distribution, Orlando, FL, 1997, p. 235.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Shah, E. V. Stepanov, A. Hiltner, E. Baer and M. Klein, Int. J. Fracture 84 (1997) 159.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Shah, E. V. Stepanov, A. Hiltner, E. Baer and A. Moet, in SPE Conference Proceedings/54th ANTEC'96, Indianapolis, IN, 1996, Vol. 3, p. 3289.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    X. Lu, R. Qian and N. Brown, J. Mater. Sci. 26 (1991) 917.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Sehanobish, A. Moet, A. Chudnovsky and P. P. Petro, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 4 (1985) 890.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Lustiger, M. J. Cassady, F. S. Uralil and L. E. Hulbert, "Field Failure Reference Catalog for Polyethylene Gas Piping, 1st ed.," (Gas Research Institute, Chicago, 1986).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Brown and X. Lu, Polymer 36 (1995) 543.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    X. Lu Idem., Int. J. Fracture 69 (1995) 371.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. A. O'Connell, M. J. Bonner, R. A. Duckett and I. M. Ward, Polymer 36 (1995) 2355.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Nishimura and I. Narisawa, Polym. Eng. Sci. 31 (1991) 403.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. W. Hertzberg and J. A. Manson, "Fatigue of Engineering Plastics," (Academic Press, New York, 1980) p. 83.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. W. Hertzberg and J. A. Manson, J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 1554.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. C. Radon, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17 (1973) 3515.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. P. Elinck, J. C. Bauwens and G. Homes, Int. J. Fracture 7 (1971) 227.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. W. Hertzberg, J. A. Manson and W. C. Wu, ASTM STP 536 (1973) 391.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. E. Waters, J. Mater. Sci. 1 (1966) 354.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. G. Borduas, L. E. Culver and D. J. Burns, J. Strain Analysis 3 (1968) 193.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. H. Watts and D. J. Burns, Polym. Eng. Sci. 7 (1967) 90.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Arad, J. C. Radon and L. E. Culver, J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 13(1971) 75.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Mukherjee and D. J. Burns, Experimental Mechanics 11 (1971) 433.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Q. Zhou and N. Brown, J.Polym. Sci: Part B: Polym. Phys. 30 (1992) 477.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. A. Bowman, in "Buried Plastic Pipe Technology," edited by G. S. Buczala and M. J. Cassady (ASTM STP 1093: Philadelphia, 1990) p. 101.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. A. Manson and R. W. Hertzberg, CRC Crit. Rev. Macromol. Sci. 1 (1973) 433.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. W. Hertzberg, M. D. Skibo, J. A. Manson and J. K. Donald, J. Mater. Sci. 14 (1979) 1754.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. W. Hertzberg, J. A. Manson and M. D. Skibo, Polym. Eng. Sci. 15 (1975) 252.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. J. Strebel and A. Moet, J. Polym. Sci: Part B: Polym. Phys. 33 (1995) 1969.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. G. Wyzgoski, G. E. Novak and D. L. Simon, J. Mater. Sci. 25 (1990) 4501.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. S. Dugdale, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 8(1960) 100.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. R. Rice, in "Fracture", Vol 2," edited by H. Liebowitz (Academic Press, New York, 1968) p. 191.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. G. Williams and G. P. Marshall, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 342 (1975) 55.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    N. Brown and I. M. Ward, J. Mater. Sci. 18 (1983) 1405.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    B. J. Egan and O. Delatycki, ibid. 30 (1995) 3307.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Friedrich, Advances in Polymer Science 52/53 (1983) 225.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Parsons
    • 1
  • E. V. Stepanov
    • 1
  • A. Hiltner
    • 1
  • E. Baer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Macromolecular Science and the Center for Applied Polymer ResearchCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations