Plant and Soil

, Volume 219, Issue 1–2, pp 221–229 | Cite as

A comparison of the effects of auxin on cluster root initiation and development in Grevillea robusta Cunn. ex R. Br. (Proteaceae) and in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae)

  • Keith R. Skene
  • Wendy M. James


The effect of NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) on the development of cluster roots in members of the Proteaceae and Leguminosae was investigated. The exogenous addition of NAA led to initiation of cluster roots in phosphate conditions normally inhibitory for their development, but initiation took place within the limits of the cluster pattern under −P conditions. There was no change in spacing within the cluster root nor between cluster roots in Grevillea robusta Cunn. ex R. Br. or in rootlet length or cluster root length. In Lupinus albus L., change in rootlet length and cluster root length was noted at 10-10 and 1012M NAA. In L. albus, the length of time that roots were exposed to NAA does not appear to be important, with similar levels of cluster root initiation after 48 h and 7 days. Cluster root production in G. robusta differed from that in L. albus in terms of the concentration of NAA needed to induce initiation, and in the effects of extremely low levels of NAA on rootlet numbers and lengths. L. arboreus L. does not produce cluster roots under −P conditions. Furthermore, neither L. arboreus L., L. angustifolius L., L. luteus L. nor L. mutabilis L. were induced to produce cluster roots under −P conditions, nor under +P conditions in the presence of exogenous NAA. Thus, exogenous NAA only leads to the induction of cluster roots, at levels of P normally inhibitive of their development, in species of Lupinus that produce them under −P conditions. Auxin-induced cluster roots develop within the same constraints as those developing under −P conditions. NAA does not induce cluster roots in species of Lupinus that do not produce them under −P conditions.

auxin cluster roots proteoid roots root development root initiation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barlow PW and Adams J S 1988 The position and growth of lateral roots on cultured root axes of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum. (Solanaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 158. 141–154.Google Scholar
  2. Bolland M D A 1995 Lupinus cosentinii more effectively utilizes low levels of phosphorus from superphosphate than Lupinus angustifolius. J. Plant Nutr. 18, 421–435.Google Scholar
  3. Bolland M D A 1997 Comparative phosphorus requirement of four lupin species. J. Plant Nutr. 20, 1239–1253.Google Scholar
  4. Bothe H, Körsgen H, Lehmacher T and Hundeshagen B 1992 Differential effects of Azospirillum, auxin and combined nitrogen on the growth of the roots of wheat. Symbiosis 13, 167–179.Google Scholar
  5. Celenza J L, Grisafi P L and Fink G R 1995 A pathway for lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 9, 213l–2142.Google Scholar
  6. Clements J C, White P F and Buirchell B J 1993 The root morphology of Lupinus angustifolius in relation to other Lupinus species. Australian J. Agric. Res. 44, 1367–1375.Google Scholar
  7. Crocker L J & Schwintzer C R 1993 Factors affecting formation of cluster roots in Myrica gale seedlings in water culture. Plant Soil 152, 287–298.Google Scholar
  8. Dinkelaker B, Hengeler C and Marschner H 1995 Distribution and function of proteoid roots and other root clusters. Bot. Acta 108, 183–200.Google Scholar
  9. Feldman L J 1984 Regulation of root development. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35, 223–242.Google Scholar
  10. Gardner W K, Parbery D G and Barber D A 1982a The acquisition of phosphorus by Lupinus albus L. II. The effect of varying phosphorus supply and soil type on some characteristics of the soil root surface. Plant Soil 68, 33–41.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner W K, Barber D A and Parbery D G 1982b Effect of microorganisms on the formation and function of proteoid roots in Lupinus albus L. Aust. J. Bot. 30, 303–3O9.Google Scholar
  12. Gilbert G A, Knight J D and Vance C P 1997 Does auxin play a role in the adaptations of white lupin roots to phosphate deficiency? Plant Physiol 114, supplement p 67.Google Scholar
  13. Grundon N J 1972 Mineral nutrition of some Queensland heath plants. J. Ecol. 60, 17l–181.Google Scholar
  14. Gutierrez Mannero F J, Acero N, Lucas J A and Probanza A 1996 The influence of native rhizobacteria on European alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn.) growth. II. Characterization and biological assays of metabolites from growth promoting and growth inhibiting bacteria. Plant Soil 182, 67–74.Google Scholar
  15. Hurd T M and Schwintzer C R 1996 Formation of cluster roots in Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and other Alnus species. Can. J. Bot. 74, 1684–1686.Google Scholar
  16. Jeffrey D W 1967 Phosphate nutrition of Australian heath plants. I. The importance of proteoid roots in Banksia (Proteaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 14, 403–411.Google Scholar
  17. Jones A M 1994 Auxin-binding proteins. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 45, 393–420.Google Scholar
  18. Keerthisinghe G, Hocking P J, Ryan P R and Delhaize E 1998 Effect of phosphorus supply on the formation and function of proteoid roots of white lupin Lupinus albus L.). Plant Cell Env. 21, 467–478.Google Scholar
  19. Lamont B B 1972 The effect of soil nutrients on the production of proteoid roots in the genus Hakea. Aust. J. Bot. 20, 27–40.Google Scholar
  20. Lamont B B 1976 Root systems of Hakea species. Aust. J. Bot. 24, 691–702.Google Scholar
  21. Lamont B B 1982. Mechanisms for enhancing nutrient uptake in plants, with particular reference to mediterranean South Africa and Western Australia. Bot. Rev. 48, 597–689.Google Scholar
  22. Lloret P G and Pulgarin A 1992 Effect of naphthaleneacetic acid on the formation of lateral roots in the adventitious root of Allium: number and arrangement of laterals along the parent root. Can. J. Bot. 70, 1891–l896.Google Scholar
  23. Lloret P G, Pulgarin A, Casimiro I, Molina M and Casero P J 1998 Effect of a treatment with naphthaleneacetic acid on the arrangement of lateral roots in Onion (Allium cepa L.): general pattern and coordination between ranks. Bot. Acta 111: 55–61.Google Scholar
  24. Louis I, Racette S and Torrey J G 1990 Phosphorus nutrition and cluster roots on Myrica. New Phytol. 15: 311–317.Google Scholar
  25. Louis I, Racette S and Torrey J G 1991 The occurrence of cluster roots in actinorhizal plants. In The Rhizosphere and Plant Growth. Eds D L Kiester and P B Cregan. p. 119. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  26. MacIsaac S A, Sawhney V K and Pohorecky Y 1989 Regulation of lateral root formation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling roots: Interacting effects of α-naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. Physiol. Plant. 77, 287–293.Google Scholar
  27. Malajczuk N and Bowen G D 1974 Proteoid roots are microbially induced. Nature 251, 316–317.Google Scholar
  28. Marschner H, Romheld V and Cakmak I 1987 Root-induced changes in nutrient availability in the rhizosphere. J. Plant Nutr. 10, 1175–1184.Google Scholar
  29. Mitchell D T and Allsopp N 1984 Changes in the phosphorus composition of seeds of Hakea sericea (Proteaceae) during germination under low phosphorus conditions. New Phytol. 96, 239–247.Google Scholar
  30. Moore C W E and Keraitis K 1966 Nutrition of Grevillea robusta. Aust. J. Bot. 14, 151–163.Google Scholar
  31. Neumann G, George E and Römheld V 1998 White lupin - A model plant to study mechanisms involved in root-induced mobilization of sparingly available P sources. In International workshop on role of environmental and biological factors in acquisition of toxic and essential elements by plants. (ed.) Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Skierniewice, Poland.Google Scholar
  32. Neumann G, Massonneau A, Martinoia E and Römheld V 1999 Physiological adaptations to phosphorus deficiency during proteoid root development in white lupin. Planta 208, 373–382.Google Scholar
  33. Nichols D G, Jones D L and Beardsell D V 1979 The effect of phosphorus on the growth of Grevillea ‘Poorinda firebird’ in the soil-less potting mixture. Scientia Horticulturae 11, l97–205.Google Scholar
  34. Purnell H M 1960 Studies of the family Proteaceae. I. Anatomy and morphology of the roots of some Victorian species. Aust. J. Bot. 8, 38–50.Google Scholar
  35. Racette S, Louis I and Torrey J G 1990 Cluster root formation by Gymnostoma papuanum (Casuarinaceae) in relation to aeration and mineral nutrient availability in water culture. Can. J. Bot. 68, 2564–2570.Google Scholar
  36. Rosenfield C L, Reed DW and Kent MW 1991 Dependency of iron reduction on development of a unique root morphology in Ficus benjamina L. Plant Physiol. 95, 1120–1124.Google Scholar
  37. Schoute J C 1913 Beitrage zur Blattstellungslehre. I. Die Theorie. Rec. Tray. Bot. Neerl. 10, 153–325.Google Scholar
  38. Skene K R 1997 The Development and Function of Cluster roots in Grevillea robusta Cunn. ex. R. Br. PhD Thesis, University of Dundee, Dundee.Google Scholar
  39. Skene K R 1998 Cluster roots: some ecological considerations. J. Ecol. 86: 1062–1066.Google Scholar
  40. Skene K R, Kierans M, Sprent J I and Raven J A 1996 Structural aspects of cluster root development and their possible significance for nutrient acquisition in Grevillea robusta (Proteaceae). Ann. Bot. 77, 443–451.Google Scholar
  41. Skene K R, Raven J A and Sprent J I 1998a Cluster root development in Grevillea robusta (Proteaceae). I. Xylem, pericycle, cortex and epidermis development in a determinate root. New Phytol. 138, 725–732.Google Scholar
  42. Skene K R, Sutherland J M, Raven J A and Sprent J I 1998b Cluster root development in Grevillea robusta (Proteaceae). II. The development of the endodermis in a determinate root and in an indeterminate, lateral root. New Phytol. 138, 733–742.Google Scholar
  43. Subba Rao N S and Rodrigues-Barrueco C 1995 Casuarinas. pp 169–l74. Science Publishers Inc., Lebanon, USA.Google Scholar
  44. Thomas M B 1974 Research on the nutrition of container-grown Proteaceae plants and other nursery stock. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 24, 313–325.Google Scholar
  45. Torrey J G 1950 The induction of lateral roots by indoleacetic acid and root decapitation. Am. J. Bot. 37, 257–264.Google Scholar
  46. Torrey J G 1986 Endogenous and exogenous influences on the regulation of lateral root formation. In New Root Formation in Plants and Cuttings. Ed. M B Jackson. pp. 31–66. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  47. Turing AM 1952 The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 237, 37–72.Google Scholar
  48. Walker B A and Pate J S 1986 Morphological variation between seedling progenies of Viminaria juncea (Schrad. &Wendl.) Hoffmans. (Fabaceae) and its physiological significance. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 13, 305–319.Google Scholar
  49. Wardlaw CW 1949 Experiments on organogenesis in ferns. Growth (Suppl.) 9, 93–131.Google Scholar
  50. Watt, M. & Evans, J R 1999 Linking development and determinancy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Plant Physiology 120, 705–716.Google Scholar
  51. Weyers J D B, Paterson N W and Attenbrook R 1987 Towards a quantitative definition of plant hormone sensitivity. Plant Cell Environ. 10, 1–10.Google Scholar
  52. Wightman F and Thimann K V 1980 Hormonal factors controlling the initiation and development of lateral roots. I. Sources of primordia-inducing substances in the primary root of pea seedlings. Physiol. Plant. 49, 13–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith R. Skene
  • Wendy M. James

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations