Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 190, Issue 2, pp 179–192 | Cite as

Stomatal control of water use in olive tree leaves

  • J.E. Fernández
  • F. Moreno
  • I.F. Girón
  • O.M. Blázquez
Article

Abstract

Little is known about the strategies used by olive trees to overcome the long dry periods typical of the areas where they are cropped. This makes it difficult to optimize the water supply in orchards. To study the control of water consumption by olive trees, measurements of leaf water potential (Ψ) and stomatal conductance to H2O (g) were made on 26-year-old t Manzanillo olive trees under three irrigation treatments. The first treatment provided enough water to cover the crop water demand, the next treatment supplied one third of that rate, and the final treatment was no irrigation at all, typical of dry-farming conditions. Under conditions of high vapour pressure deficit of the air (Da), the olive trees prevented excessive water loss by closing their stomata. Leaves of the current year showed better stomatal control than did the 1-year-old leaves. The upper-bound functional relationships between t g and t Da and photon flux density (IP) were obtained by boundary-line analysis, based on a technique of non-linear least squares. Maximum values of t g were observed at relatively low levels of t IP, from about 500 μmol m-2 s-1, and a proportional decrease in t g with increasing t Da was also found, at least for values of up to approximately 3.5 kPa. Higher values of t g were observed in the morning than in the afternoon, for similar levels of t IP and t Da. Unirrigated olive trees recovered quickly after the dry season, showing values of Ψ and t g similar to those of irrigated trees after just two days.

irrigation leaf age leaf water potential leaf water relations t Olea europaea L. var. t Manzanillo stomatal conductance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abd-El-Rahman A A and El-Sharkawi H M 1974 Response of olive and almond orchards to partial irrigation under dry-farming practices in semi-arid regions. II. Plant-soil water relations in olive during the growing season. Plant Soil 41, 13-31.Google Scholar
  2. Abd-El-Rahman A A, Shalaby A F and Balegh M 1966 Water economy of olive under desert conditions. Flora 156, 202-219.Google Scholar
  3. Baker J M and Allmaras R R 1990 System for automating and multiplexing soil moisture measurements by time-domain reflectometry. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54, 1-6.Google Scholar
  4. Benecke U, Schulze E-D, Matyssek R and Hayranek W M 1981 Environmental control of CO2-assimilation and leaf conductance in Larix deciduaMill. Oecologia 50, 54-61.Google Scholar
  5. Bongi G, Mencuccini M and Fontanazza G 1987a Photosynthesis of olive leaves: Effect of light flux density, leaf age, temperature, peltates, and H2O vapor pressure deficit on gas exchange. J Am. Soc. Hort. Sci 112, 143-148.Google Scholar
  6. Bongi G, Soldatini G F and Hubick K T 1987b Mechanism of photosynthesis in olive tree (Olea europaeaL.). Photosynthetica 21, 572-578.Google Scholar
  7. Bréda N, Granier A, Barataud F and Moyne C 1995 Soil water dynamics in an oak stand. Plant Soil 172, 17-27.Google Scholar
  8. Castel J R and Fereres E 1982 Responses of young almond trees to two drought periods in the field. J. Hort. Sci. 57, 175-187.Google Scholar
  9. Doorenbos J and Pruitt W O 1977 Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements. FAO Irrig. and Drain. Paper No. 24, 2nd ed. FAO Rome, Italy. 156 p.Google Scholar
  10. Fereres E and Castel J R 1981 Drip irrigation management. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. Leaflet 21259.Google Scholar
  11. Fereres E, Cruz-Romero G, Hoffman G J and Rawlins S L 1979 Recovery of orange trees following severe water stress. J. Appl. Ecol. 16, 833-842.Google Scholar
  12. Fernández J E 1989 Comportamiento del olivo (Olea europaeaL., var. Manzanillo) sometido a distintos regímenes hídricos, con especial referencia a la dinámica del sistema radicular y de la transpiración. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University of Córdoba. 271 p.Google Scholar
  13. Fernández J E, Moreno F, Cabrera F, Arrue J L and Martín-Aranda J 1991 Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant Soil 133, 239-251.Google Scholar
  14. Fernández J E, Moreno F and Martín-Aranda J 1993 Water status of olive trees under dry-farming and drip-irrigation. Acta Hortic. 335, 157-164.Google Scholar
  15. Fernández J E, Moreno F, Martín-Aranda J and Rapoport H F 1994 Anatomical response of olive roots to dry and irrigated soils. Adv. Hort. Sci. 8, 141-144.Google Scholar
  16. Granier A 1987 Evaluation of transpiration in a Douglas-fir stand by means of sap flow measurements. Tree Physiol. 3, 309-320.Google Scholar
  17. Hinckley T M, Schroeder M O, Roberts J E and Bruckerhoff D N 1975 Effect of several environmental variables and xylem pressure potential on leaf surface resistance in white oak. For. Sci. 21, 201-211.Google Scholar
  18. Jarvis P G 1976 The interpretation of the variation in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London Ser. B 273, 593-610Google Scholar
  19. Jorba J, Tapia L and Sant D 1985 Photosynthesis, leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance in Olea europaeaunder wet and drought conditions. Acta Hortic. 171, 237-246.Google Scholar
  20. Kaufmann MR and Levy Y 1976 Stomatal response of Citrus jambhirito water stress and humidity. Physiol. Plant. 38, 105-108.Google Scholar
  21. Larsen F E, Higgins S S and Al Wir A 1989 Diurnal water relations of apple, apricot, grape, olive and peach in an arid environment (Jordan). Sci. Hortic. 39, 211-222.Google Scholar
  22. Leon J M and Bukovac M J 1978 Cuticle development and surface morphology of olive leaves with reference to penetration of foliar-applied chemicals. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(4), 465-472.Google Scholar
  23. Lo Gullo M A and Salleo S 1988 Different strategies of drought resistance in three Mediterranean sclerophyllous trees growing in the same environmental conditions. New Phytol. 108, 267- 276.Google Scholar
  24. Mantovani C E 1994 Desarrollo y evaluación de modelos para el manejo del riego: estimación de la evapotranspiración y efectos de la uniformidad de aplicación del riego sobre la producción de los cultivos. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, University of Córdoba.Google Scholar
  25. Moreno F, Fernández J E, Clothier B E and Green S R 1996 Transpiration and root water uptake by olive trees. Plant Soil 184, 85-96.Google Scholar
  26. Moreno F, Vachaud G and Martín-Aranda J 1983 Caracterización hidrodinámica de un suelo de olivar. Fundamento teórico y métodos experimentales. Anal. Edaf. Agrobiol. 42, 695-721.Google Scholar
  27. Moreno F, Vachaud G, Martín-Aranda J, Vauclin M and Fernández J E 1988 Balance hídrico de un olivar con riego gota a gota. Resultados de cuatro años de experiencias. Agronomie 8, 521- 537.Google Scholar
  28. Pastor M and Orgaz F 1994 Riego deficitario del olivar. Agricultura 746, 768-776.Google Scholar
  29. Punthakey J F, McFarland M J and Worthington J W 1984 Stomatal responses to leaf water potentials of drip irrigated peach (Prunus persica). Trans. ASAE 27, 1442-1450.Google Scholar
  30. Reich P B 1984a Loss of stomatal function in aging hybrid poplar leaves. Ann. Bot. (London) 53, 691-698.Google Scholar
  31. Reich P B 1984b Relationships between leaf age, irradiance, leaf conductance, CO2 exchange, and water use efficiency in hybrid poplar. Photosynthetica (Prague) 18, 445-453.Google Scholar
  32. Reich P B and Borchert R 1988 Changes with leaf age in stomatal function and water status of several tropical tree species. Biotropica 20, 60-69.Google Scholar
  33. Rieger M 1995 Offsetting effects of reduced root hydraulic conductivity and osmotic adjustment following drought. Tree Physiol. 15, 379-385.Google Scholar
  34. Salleo S and Lo Gullo M A 1993 Drought resistance strategies and vulnerability to cavitation of some Mediterranean sclerophyllous trees. InWater Transport in Plants under Stress Conditions. Eds. M Borghetti et al. pp 99-113. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. Salleo S, Lo Gullo M A and Oliveri F 1985 Hydraulic parameters measured in 1-year-old twigs of some Mediterranean species with diffuse-porous wood: Changes in hydraulic conductivity and their possible functional significance. J. Exp. Bot. 36, 1-11.Google Scholar
  36. Tardieu F and Davies WJ 1993 Integration of hydraulic and chemical signalling in the control of stomatal conductance and water status of droughted plants. Plant Cell Environ. 16, 341-349.Google Scholar
  37. Thorpe M R, Warrit B and Landsberg J J 1980 Responses of apple leaf stomata: a model for single leaves and a whole tree. Plant Cell Environ. 3, 23-27.Google Scholar
  38. Torrecillas A, Ruiz-Sanchez M C, Leon A and Garcia A L 1988 Stomatal response to leaf water potential in almond trees under drip irrigated and non irrigated conditions. Plant Soil 112, 151- 153.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.E. Fernández
    • 1
  • F. Moreno
    • 1
  • I.F. Girón
    • 1
  • O.M. Blázquez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (CSIC)SevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations