Plant and Soil

, Volume 193, Issue 1–2, pp 181–198 | Cite as

Boron toxicity

  • Ross O. Nable
  • Gary S. Bañuelos
  • Jeffrey G. Paull
Article

Abstract

Whilst of lesser prevalence than B deficient soils, B-rich soils are important, causing B toxicity in the field and decreased crop yields in different regions of the world. The highest naturally occurring concentrations of soil B are in soils derived from marine evaporites and marine argillaceous sediment. In addition, various anthropogenic sources of excess B may increase soil B to levels toxic for plants. The most important source is irrigation water, but others include wastes from surface mining, fly ash, and industrial chemicals. Ameliorating high-B soils is extremely difficult. A commonly used method of reclaiming high B soils is to extensively leach with low B water. Though used successfully, leaching may not be a permanent solution and causes difficulties with the disposal of the leachates. Other amelioration methods include the use of soil amendments (e.g. lime, gypsum) and the planting of plant genotypes that are tolerant of high external B concentrations. Although there are various methods available to determine the levels of B in soils, soil analysis can provide little more than a general risk assessment for B toxicity. Similarly, diagnosing B toxicity in plants, either by visible symptoms or tissue analysis has limited applicability. Thus at present, neither soil nor plant analysis can be recommended to precisely predict the growth of plants on high soil B. Recent physiological and genetic studies have provided some understanding of genetic variation in the response of plants to high concentrations of B. Moreover, these studies have facilitated the breeding of tolerant genotypes for cultivation on high B soils. Considerable genetic variation in response to high B has been identified in a wide range of plant species, most of which share a similar tolerance mechanism – reduced uptake of B in both shoots and roots. The tolerance mechanism appears to be under the control of several major additive genes, and specific chromosomal locations have been identified for the genes in some species. Considerable success has been achieved in breeding for tolerance to B toxicity, a process that is greatly aided by the ease with which genotypic variation for this characteristic can be assessed and the range of methods available to screen breeding populations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adriano D C 1986 Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment. pp 73-105. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken R L and McCallum L E 1988 Boron toxicity in soil solution. Aust. J. Soil Res. 26, 605-610.Google Scholar
  3. Ayars J E, Hoffman G J and Schrale G 1990 Strategies to reduce salt load in drainage water. Proceedings of the 1990 National Conference IrDiv/ASCE. Durango, CO. pp 331-338.Google Scholar
  4. Ayars J E, Hutmacher R B, Schoneman R A, Vail S S and Pflaum T 1994 Long term use of saline water for irrigation. Irrig. Sci. 14, 27-34.Google Scholar
  5. Bachelet M, Cheylan E and le Bris J 1947 Solubilite des principaux acides fixes des minerals d'uranium dan l'ether ethylique et coef-ficient de partage entre l'eau et l'ether ethyliques. J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol. 44, 302-305.Google Scholar
  6. Bagheri A, Paull J G and Rathjen A J 1994 The response of Pisum sativum L. germplasm to high concentrations of soil boron. Euphytica 75, 9-17.Google Scholar
  7. Bagheri A, Paull J G and Rathjen A J 1996 Genetics of tolerance to high concentrations of soil boron in peas (Pisum sativum L.). Euphytica 87, 69-75.Google Scholar
  8. Bagheri A, Paull J G, Rathjen A J, Ali S M and Moody D B 1992 Genetic variation in the response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to high soil concentrations of boron. Plant and Soil 146, 261-269.Google Scholar
  9. Bañuelos G S, Akohoue S, Zambrzuski S and Mead R 1993a Trace element composition of different plant species used for remediation of boron-laden soils. In Plant Nutrition From Genetic Engineering to Field Practice. Ed. N J Barrow. pp 425-428. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  10. Bañuelos G S, Mackey B, Wu L, Zambrzuski S and Akohoue S 1995 Bioextraction of soil boron by tall fescue. Ecotoxicology Environ. Safety 31, 110-116.Google Scholar
  11. Bañuelos G, Cardon G, Mackey B, Ben-Asher J, Wu L, Beuselinck P, Akohoue S and Zambrzuski S 1993b Boron and selenium removal in boron laden soils by four sprinkler irrigated plant species. J. Environ. Qual. 22, 786-792.Google Scholar
  12. Barth R C 1984 Soil depth requirements to re-establish perennial grasses on surfaced-mined areas in the Northern Great Plains. Mineral Energy Resources 27, 1-20.Google Scholar
  13. Barth R C, Severson R C and Weiler G 1987 Boron. In Reclaiming Mine Soils and Overburden in the Western US: Analytical Parameters and Procedures. Eds. R D Williams and G E Schuman. pp 135-153. Soil Conservation Soc. Am., Ankey, IA, USA.Google Scholar
  14. Bartlett R J and Picarelli C J 1973 Availability of boron and phosphorus as affected by liming an acid potato soil. Soil Sci. 116, 77-80.Google Scholar
  15. Bennett, W F 1993 Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants. APS Press, St Paul, MN, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Berger K C and Truog E 1940 Boron deficiencies as revealed by plant and soil tests. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 32, 297-301.Google Scholar
  17. Bergmann W 1992 Colour Atlas: Nutritional Disorders of Plants. pp 204-239. Gustav Fischer, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Bhumbla D R and Ckhabra R 1982 Chemistry of sodic soils in review of soil research in India. In Trans. 12th Int. Cong. Soil Sci. New Delhi, India. 169 p.Google Scholar
  19. Bingham F T 1973 Boron in cultivated soils and irrigation waters. In Trace Elements in the Environment. Advances in Chemistry, Ser. 123. Ed. E L Kothnz. pp 130-138. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  20. Bingham F T 1982 Boron. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Ed. A L Page. pp 431-447. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Blatt C R 1976 Phosphorus and boron interactions on growth of strawberries. HortScience 11, 597-599.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks B J 1991 The adaptation of Triticum turgidum L. var. durum (durum wheat) to South Australia. Honours Thesis, The University of Adelaide.Google Scholar
  23. Brown P H and Hu H 1994 Boron uptake by sunflower, squash and cultured tobacco cells. Physiol. Plant. 91, 435-441.Google Scholar
  24. Brown P H and Hu H 1996 Phloem mobility of boron is species dependent: evidence for phloem mobility in sorbitol-rich species. Ann. Bot. 77, 497-505.Google Scholar
  25. Caceres L, Gruttner D. and Contreras N 1992 Water recycling in arid regions: Chilean case. Ambio 21, 138-144.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell T A, Rathjen A J and Jefferies S P 1994 Breeding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for tolerance to boron toxicity. In Proc. 7th Assembly Wheat Breeding Society of Australia. Eds. J G Paull, I S Dundass, K W Shepherd and G J Hollamby. pp 111-114. Wheat Breeding Society of Australia.Google Scholar
  27. Campbell T A, Moody D B, Jefferies S P, Cartwright B and Rathjen A J 1995 Grain yield evaluation of near isogenic lines for boron tolerance. In Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp., Beijing. Eds. Z S Li and Z Y Xin. pp 1021-1027.Google Scholar
  28. Carlson C L and Adriano D C 1993 Environmental impact of coal combustion residues. J. Environ. Qual. 22, 227-247.Google Scholar
  29. Cartwright B, Zarcinas B A and Mayfield A H 1984 Toxic concentrations of B in a red-brown earth at Gladstone, South Australia. Aust. J. Soil Res. 22, 261-272.Google Scholar
  30. Cartwright B, Zarcinas BA and Spouncer LA 1986 Boron toxicity in South Australian barley crops. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 37, 351-359.Google Scholar
  31. Cartwright B, Rathjen A J, Sparrow D H B, Paull J G and Zarcinas B A 1987 Boron tolerance in Australian varieties of wheat and barley. In Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. Eds. H W Gabelman and B C Loughman. pp 139-151. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  32. Cayton M T C 1985 Boron toxicity in rice. IRRI Research Paper Series 113.Google Scholar
  33. Chantachume Y 1995 Genetic studies on the tolerance of wheat to high concentrations of boron. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar
  34. Chantachume Y, Shepherd K W, Paull J G and Rathjen A J 1994 Chromosomal location of genes in wheat controlling tolerance to high concentrations of boron. In Proc. 7th Assembly Wheat Breeding Society of Australia. Eds. J G Paull, I S Dundas, K W Shepherd and G J Hollamby. pp 27-30. Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar
  35. Chantachume Y, Smith D, Hollamby G J, Paull J G and Rathjen A J 1995 Screening for boron tolerance in wheat (T. aestivum) by solution culture in filter paper. Plant and Soil 177, 249-254.Google Scholar
  36. Chao T T 1972 Selective dissolution of manganese oxides from soils and sediments with acidified NH2OH-HCl. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 764-768.Google Scholar
  37. Chapman H D and Vanselow A P 1955 Boron deficiency and excess. Calif. Citrograph 41, 31-34.Google Scholar
  38. Chatterjee B W, Chatterjee m and Das N R 1980 Note on the differences in the response of wheat varieties to boron. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 50, 796.Google Scholar
  39. Chauhan R P S and Powar S L 1978 Tolerance of wheat and pea to boron in irrigation water. Plant and Soil 50, 145-149.Google Scholar
  40. Chesworth W 1991 Geochemistry of micronutrients. In Micronutrients in Agriculture. Eds. J J Mortvedt, F R Cox, LM Shuman and R M Welch. pp 1-30. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
  41. Chhipa B R and Lal P 1990 A comparative study on the effect of soil B on yield, yield attributes and nutrient uptake by susceptible and tolerant varieties of wheat. An. Edafol. Agrobiol. 48, 489-498.Google Scholar
  42. Christensen J J 1934 Nonparasitic leaf spots of barley. Phytopath. 24, 726-742.Google Scholar
  43. Cox R R and Kamprath E J 1977 Essential micronutrient soil tests. In Micronutrients in Agriculture. Eds. J J Mortvedt, P M Giordano and W L Lindsay. pp 289-317. Soil Science Soc.Amer., Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
  44. DeEndredy A S 1963 Estimation of free iron oxides in soils and clays by a photolytic method. Clay Miner Bull. 9, 209-217.Google Scholar
  45. Dhankhar D P and Dahiya S S 1980 The effect of different levels of boron and soil salinity on the yield of dry matter and its mineral composition in Ber (Zizyphus rotundifola). Int. Symp. on Salt Affected Soils. Karnal, India, pp 396-403.Google Scholar
  46. Eary L E, Dhanpot R, Mattigod S V and Ainsworth C C 1990 Geochemical factors controlling the mobilisation of inorganic constituents from fossil fuel combustion residues. II Review of the minor elements. J. Environ. Qual. 19, 202-210.Google Scholar
  47. Eaton F M 1935 Boron in soil and irrigation waters and its effect on plants. USDA Tech. Bull. 448.Google Scholar
  48. Eaton F M 1944 Deficiency, toxicity and accumulation of boron in plants. J. Agric. Res. 69, 237-277.Google Scholar
  49. Eaton F M and Blair G Y 1935 Accumulation of boron by reciprocally grafted plants. Plant Physiol. 10, 411-424.Google Scholar
  50. El-Motaium R, Hu H and Brown P H 1994 the relative tolerance of six Prunus rootstocks to boron and salinity. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119, 1169-1175.Google Scholar
  51. Elseewi A A, Page A L and Grimm S R 1980a Chemical characterisation of fly ash aqueous systems. J. Environ. Qual. 9, 424-428.Google Scholar
  52. Elseewi AA, Straughan I R and Page AL 1980b Sequential cropping of fly ash-amended soils: Effect on soil chemical properties and yield, and elemental composition of plants. Sci. Total Environ. 15, 247-259.Google Scholar
  53. Erd R C 1980 The minerals of boron. In Mellor's Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. Suppl. to Vol. V. Ed. R Thompson. pp 7-71. Longman, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Fleming G A 1980 Essential micronutrients: boron and molybdenum. In Applied Soil Trace Elements. Ed. B E Davies. pp 155- 176. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Francois L E and Clark R A 1979 Boron tolerance of twenty-five ornamental shrub species. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 104, 319-322.Google Scholar
  56. Gill K S, Lubbers E L, Gill B S, Raupp W J and Cox T S 1991 A genetic linkage map of Triticum tauschii (DD) and its relationship to the D genome of bread wheat (AABBDD). Genome 34, 362- 374.Google Scholar
  57. Goldberg S 1993 Chemistry and mineralogy of boron in soils. In Boron and Its Role in Crop Production. Ed. U C Gupta. pp 344. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  58. Graham R D, Welch R M, Grunes D L, Cary E E and Norvell W A 1986 Effect of zinc deficiency on the accumulation of boron and other mineral nutrients in barley. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 652-657.Google Scholar
  59. Gupta U C 1977 Effects of boron and limestone on cereal yields and on B and N concentrations of plant tissue. Plant and Soil 47, 283-287.Google Scholar
  60. Gupta U C 1993 Deficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity levels of boron in crops. In Boron and Its Role in Crop Production. Ed. U C Gupta. pp 137-145. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  61. Gupta U C, MacLeod J A and Sterling J D E 1976 Effects of boron and nitrogen on grain yield and boron and nitrogen concentrations of barley and wheat. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 40, 723-726.Google Scholar
  62. Gupta UC, Jame Y W, Campbell CA, Leyshon AJ and Nicholaichuk W 1985 Boron toxicity and deficiency: a review. Can. J. Soil Sci. 65, 381-409.Google Scholar
  63. Haas A R C 1929 Toxic effect of boron on fruit trees. Bot. Gaz. 88, 113-131.Google Scholar
  64. Handreck K A 1990 Methods of assessing boron availability in potting media with special reference to toxicity. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 21, 2265-2280.Google Scholar
  65. Hoffman G J 1990 Leaching fraction and root zone salinity control. In Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management. Ed. K K Tanji. pp 238-261. Amer. Soc. of Civil Eng., New York.Google Scholar
  66. Hope A B and Walker N A 1975 The Physiology of Giant Algal Cells. pp 77. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  67. Huang C and Graham R D 1990 Resistance of wheat genotypes to boron toxicity is expressed at the cellular level. Plant and Soil 126, 295-300.Google Scholar
  68. Iyenger S S, Martens D C and Miller W P 1981 Distribution and plant availability of soil zinc fractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 735-739.Google Scholar
  69. Jame Y W, Nicholaichuk W, Leyshon A J and Cambell C A 1982 Boron concentration in the soil solution under irrigation: a theoretical analysis. Can. J. Soil. Sci. 62, 461-470.Google Scholar
  70. James W D, Graham C C, Glascock M D and Hanna A G 1982 Water-leachable B from coal ashes. Environ. Sci. Tech. 16, 195- 199.Google Scholar
  71. Jamjod S 1996 Genetics of boron tolerance in durum wheat. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar
  72. Jamjod S, Paull J G, Brooks B J and Rathjen A J 1997 Genetic variation in the tolerance of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) to high concentrations of boron. In Proceedings of Boron in Soils and Plants. Eds. R W Bell and B Rerkasem. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands (in press).Google Scholar
  73. Jenkin M J 1993 The genetics of boron tolerance in barley. Ph D Thesis, The University of Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar
  74. Jones L H P and Handreck K A 1969 Uptake of silica by Trifolium incartanum in relation to the concentration in the external solution and to transpiration. Plant and Soil 30, 71-80.Google Scholar
  75. Keren R and Bingham F T 1985 Boron in water, soils, and plants. Adv Soil Sci. 1, 230-276.Google Scholar
  76. Kluge R and Podlesak W 1985 Plant critical levels for the evaluation of boron toxicity in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant and Soil 83, 381-388.Google Scholar
  77. Kubata J 1980 Regional distribution of trace element problems in North America. In Applied Soil Trace Elements. Ed. B. Davies. pp 443-466. John Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  78. Kukier U and Sumner M E 1996 Boron availability to plants from coal combustion by-products. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 87, 93-110.Google Scholar
  79. Kukier U, Sumner M E and Miller W P 1994 Boron released from fly ash and its uptake by corn. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 596-603.Google Scholar
  80. Leyshon A J and Jame Y M 1993 Boron toxicity and irrigation management. In Boron and It's Role in Crop Production. Ed. U C Gupta. pp 207-226. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  81. Loomis W D and Durst RW 1992 Chemistry and biology of boron. BioFactors 3, 229-239.Google Scholar
  82. Lovatt C J and Bates L M 1984 Early effects of excess boron on photosynthesis and growth of Cucurbita pepo. J. Exp. Bot. 35, 297-305.Google Scholar
  83. Lukaszewski K M, Blevins D G and Randall D D 1992 Asparagine and boric acid cause allantoate accumulation in soybean leaves by inhibiting manganese-dependent allantoate amidohydrolase. Plant Physiol. 99, 1670-1676.Google Scholar
  84. Maas EV 1987 Salt tolerance of plants. In Handbook of Plant Science in Agriculture, vol. 2. Ed. B R Christie. pp 57. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  85. Manyowa N M and Miller T E 1991 The genetics of tolerance to high mineral concentrations in the tribe Triticeae - a review and update. Euphytica 57, 175-185.Google Scholar
  86. Masson L 1967 Alaunos problemas relacionados con la calinidad in los vales de la costa sur. Oficeing Nacional de Evaluacion di Recursos Nationals. Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  87. Materne A M 1979 Genetic variability in the response of field pea varieties to soil boron. Honours Thesis, The University of Adelaide.Google Scholar
  88. Mattigod S V 1983 A method of estimating the standard free energy of information of borate minerals. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 47, 654-655.Google Scholar
  89. Mehrotra O N, Srivastava R D L and Hishra P H 1980 Some observations on the relative tolerance of wheat genotypes to boron. Indian Agric. 24, 223-238.Google Scholar
  90. Moody D B, Rathjen A J and Cartwright B 1993 Yield evaluation of a gene for boron tolerance using backcross-derived lines. In Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. Eds. P J Randall, E Delhaize, R A Richards and R Munns. pp 363-366. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  91. Moody D B, Rathjen A J, Cartwright B, Paull J G and Lewis J 1988 Genetic diversity and geographical distribution of tolerance to high levels of soil boron. In Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp., Cambridge. Eds. T E Miller and R M D Koebner. pp 859-865.Google Scholar
  92. Nable R O 1988 Resistance to boron toxicity amongst several barley and wheat cultivars: a preliminary examination of the resistance mechanism. Plant and Soil 112, 45-57.Google Scholar
  93. Nable R O 1989 Effects of boron toxicity upon the mineral nutrient composition of barley and wheat cultivars. CSIRO Div. Soils Report No. 104.Google Scholar
  94. Nable R O and Moody D B 1992 Effects of rainfall on the use of foliar analysis for diagnosing boron toxicity in field-grown wheat. Plant Soil 140, 311-314.Google Scholar
  95. Nable R O, Cartwright B and Lance R C M 1990a Genotypic differences in boron accumulation in barley: relative susceptibilities to boron deficiency and toxicity. In Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. Ed. N El Bassam. pp 243-251. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  96. Nable R O, Lance R C M and Cartwright B 1990b Uptake of boron and silicon by barley genotypes with differing susceptibilities to boron toxicity. Ann. Bot. 66, 83-90.Google Scholar
  97. Nable R O, Paull G P and Cartwright B 1990c Problems associated with the use of foliar analysis for diagnosing boron toxicity in barley. Plant and Soil 128, 225-232.Google Scholar
  98. Nicholaichuk W A, Leyshon J, Jame Y W and Campbell C A 1988 Boron and salinity survey of irrigation projects and the boron adsorption characteristics of some Saskatchewan soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 68, 77-90.Google Scholar
  99. Oertli J J 1994 Non-homogeneity of boron distribution in plants and consequences for foliar diagnosis. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25, 1133-1147.Google Scholar
  100. Oertli J J and Kohl HC 1961 Some considerations about the tolerance of various plant species to excessive supplies of boron. Soil Sci. 92, 243-247.Google Scholar
  101. Oertli J J and Roth J A 1969 Boron nutrition of sugar beet, cotton, and soybean. Agron. J. 61, 191-95.Google Scholar
  102. Paliwal K V and Mehta K K 1973 Interactive effect of salinity, SAR and boron on the germination and growth of seedlings of some paddy (Oryza sativa) varieties. Plant and Soil 39, 603-609.Google Scholar
  103. Parker P R and Gardner E H 1981 The determination of hot water soluble boron in some acid Oregon soils using a modi-fied azomethine-H procedure. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 12, 1311-1377.Google Scholar
  104. Parker D R, Page A L and Thomas D N 1991 Salinity and boron tolerances of candidate plants for the removal of selenium from soils. J. Environ. Qual. 20, 157-164.Google Scholar
  105. Paull J G 1990 Genetic studies on the tolerance of wheat to high concentrations of boron. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Adelaide, South Australia.Google Scholar
  106. Paull J G, Cartwright B and Rathjen A J 1988a Responses of wheat and barley genotypes to toxic concentrations of soil boron. Euphytica 39, 137-144.Google Scholar
  107. Paull J G, Nable R O and Rathjen A J 1992a Physiological and genetic control of the tolerance of wheat to high concentrations of boron and implications for plant breeding. Plant and Soil 146, 251-260.Google Scholar
  108. Paull J G, Rathjen A J and Cartwright B 1988b Genetic control of tolerance to high concentrations of soil boron in wheat. In Proc. 7th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp., Cambridge. Eds. T E Miller and R M D Koebner pp 871-877.Google Scholar
  109. Paull J G, Rathjen A J and Cartwright B 1991a Major gene control of tolerance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high concentrations of soil boron. Euphytica 55, 217-288.Google Scholar
  110. Paull J G, Rathjen A J and Cartwright B 1991b Tolerance to high concentrations of boron for the amphiploid of Triticum aestivum197-1Agropyron elongatum. Plant and Soil 133, 297-299.Google Scholar
  111. Paull J G, Rathjen A J, Cartwright B and Nable R O 1990 Selection parameters for assessing the tolerance of wheat to high concentrations of boron. In Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. Ed. N El Bassam. pp 361-369. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  112. Paull J G, Rathjen AJ, Langridge P and McIntosh RA 1995 Location of genes controlling boron tolerance of wheat. In Proc. 8th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp, Beijing. Eds. Z S Li and Z Y Xin pp 1065- 1069.Google Scholar
  113. Paull J G, Nable R O, Lake A W H, Materne M A and Rathjen A J 1992b Response of annual medics (Medicago spp.) and field peas (Pisum sativum) to high concentrations of boron: genetic variation and the mechanism of tolerance. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 43, 203-213.Google Scholar
  114. Perkins P V 1996 A theoretical approach to the assessment of boron phytotoxicity resulting from the amelioration of minespoil with pulverised fuel ash. Land Degradation and Development. 7, 239- 256.Google Scholar
  115. Peryea F J, Bingham F T and Rhoades J D 1985 Mechanisms for boron regeneration. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49, 840-843.Google Scholar
  116. Picchioni G A and Miyamoto S 1991 Growth and boron uptake of five pecan cultivar seedlings. HortScience 26, 386-388.Google Scholar
  117. Pichtel J R, Dick W A and Sutton P 1994 Comparison of amendments and management practices for long-term reclamation of abandoned mine lands. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 766-777.Google Scholar
  118. Piha M J; Vallack H W, Michael N and Reeler B M 1995 A low impact approach to vegetation establishment on mine and coal ash wastes in semi-arid regions. II. Lagooned pulverized fuel ash in Zimbabwe. J. Applied Ecology 32, 382-390.Google Scholar
  119. Ponnamperuma F N, Lantin R S and Cayton M T C 1979 Boron toxicity in rice soils. Int. Rice Res. Newsletter 4, 8.Google Scholar
  120. Prather R J 1977 Sulphuric acid as an amendment for reclaiming soils high in boron. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 41, 1098-1101.Google Scholar
  121. Purvis E R and Hanna J 1938 Boron studies: I The susceptibility of various plants to boron toxicity as influenced by soil types. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 3, 205-209.Google Scholar
  122. Rathjen A J and Pederson D G 1986 Selecting for improved grain yields in variable environments. In Plant Breeding Symposium DSIR. Eds. T A Williams and G S Wratt. pp 104-115. Agronomy Society of New Zealand, Special Publication No. 5.Google Scholar
  123. Rathjen A J, Cartwright B, Paull J G, Moody D B and Lewis J 1987 Breeding for tolerance of mineral toxicities in Australian cereals with special reference to boron. In Priorities in Soil/Plant Relations Research for Plant Production. Eds. P G E Searle and B G Davey. pp 111-130. School of Crop Sciences, The University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  124. Raven J A 1980 Short-and long-distance transport of boric acid in plants. New Phytol. 84, 231-249.Google Scholar
  125. Raven J A 1983 The transport and function of silicon in plants. Biol. Rev. 58, 179-207.Google Scholar
  126. Ravikovitch S, Margolin m and Navroth J 1961 Microelements in soils of Israel. Soil Sci. 92, 85-89.Google Scholar
  127. Rhoades J D, Ingvalson R D and Hatcher J T 1970 Laboratory determinations of leachable soil boron. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34, 871-875.Google Scholar
  128. Riley M M, Robson A D, Dellar G A and Gartrell JW 1994 Critical toxic concentrations of boron are variable in barley. J Plant Nutr. 17, 1701-1719.Google Scholar
  129. Roundy B A 1985 Germination and seedling growth of tall wheatgrass and basin wildrye in relation to boron. J. Range Management 38, 270-272.Google Scholar
  130. Rozema J, De Bruin J and Broekman R A 1992 Effect of boron on growth and mineral economy of some halophytes and non-halophytes. New Phytol. 121, 249-256.Google Scholar
  131. Ryan J, Mirjamoto S and Stroehlein J L 1977 Relation of solute and sorbed B to the B hazard in irrigation water. Plant and Soil. 47, 253-256.Google Scholar
  132. Schuman G E 1969 Boron tolerance of tall wheatgrass. Agron. J. 61, 445-447.Google Scholar
  133. Schwertmann U 1964 The differentiation of iron oxides in soil by extraction with NH4-oxalate solution. Z. Pflanzenernahr Bodenkd. 105, 194-202.Google Scholar
  134. Severson R C and Gough Z P 1983 Boron in mine soils and rehabilitation plant species at selected cool mines in western U.S. J. Environ. Qual. 12, 142-146.Google Scholar
  135. Severson R C and Tidball R R 1979 Spatial variation in total element concentration in soil within the northern great plains cool region. U.S. Geological Survey Paper 1134-A. Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  136. Shani Y and Hanks R J 1993 Model of integrated effects of boron, inert salt, and water flow on crop yield. Agron. J. 85, 713-717.Google Scholar
  137. Shennan C, Grattan S R, May D M, Hillhouse C J, Schachtman D P, Wander M, Roberts B, Tafoya S, Burau R G, McNeish C and Zelinski L 1995 Feasibility of cyclic reuse of saline drainage in a tomato cotton rotation. J. Environ. Qual. 24, 476-486.Google Scholar
  138. Shorrocks V M 1964 Boron toxicity in Hevea brasiliensis. Nature 204, 599-600.Google Scholar
  139. Shorrocks V M 1995 Micronutrient News and Information, 15(1), 3-4.Google Scholar
  140. Smidt R E and Whitton J S 1975 Note on boron toxicity in a stand of radiata pine in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. J. Science 18, 104-113.Google Scholar
  141. Snape J W and Law C N 1980 The detection of homologous chromosome in wheat using backcross reciprocal monosomic lines. Heredity 45, 187-200.Google Scholar
  142. Spouncer L R, Nable R O and Cartwright B 1992 Aprocedure for the determination of soluble boron in soils ranging widely in Boron concentrations, sodicity, and pH. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 23, 441-453.Google Scholar
  143. Su C, Evans L J, Bates T E and Spiers G A 1994 Extractable soil boron and alfalfa uptake: calcium carbonate effects on acid soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58, 1445-1450.Google Scholar
  144. Swietlik D 1995 Interaction between zinc deficiency and boron toxicity on growth and mineral nutrition of sour orange seedlings. J. Plant Nutrition 18, 1191-1207.Google Scholar
  145. Takkar P N 1982 Micronutrients: forms, content, distribution in profile, indices of availability and soil test methods. In 12th Int. Soil Sci. Cong., Part 1. New Delhi. 136p.Google Scholar
  146. Toledo J and Spurr J 1984 plant growth and boron uptake by Lycop-ersicon esculentum andL. cheesmanii f.minor. Turrialba 34, 111- 115.Google Scholar
  147. United States Salinity Lab. Staff 1954 Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Handbook. No. 60.Google Scholar
  148. Vengosh A, Heumann K G, Juraski S and Kasher R 1994 Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Environ. Sci. Tech. 28, 1968-1974.Google Scholar
  149. Walker C D and Lance R C M 1991 Silicon accumulation and 13C composition as indices of water-use efficiency in barley cultivars. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18, 427-434.Google Scholar
  150. Walter A and Gutknecht J 1986 Permeability of small non-electrolytes through lipid bilayer membranes. J. Membrane Biol. 90, 207-217.Google Scholar
  151. Watson M C, Bañuelos G S, O'Leary J W and Riley J J 1994 Trace element composition of Atriplex grown with saline drainage water. Agri. Ecosys. Environ. 48, 157-167.Google Scholar
  152. Wong J W C, Jiang R F and Su D C 1996 Boron availability in ash-sludge mixture and its uptake by corn seedling (Zea mays L.). Soil Sci. 161, 182-187.Google Scholar
  153. Yau S K, Nachit, M M, Ryan J and Hamblin J 1995 Phenotypic variation in boron-toxicity tolerance at seedling stage in durum wheat (Triticum durum). Euphytica 83: 185-191.Google Scholar
  154. Yokota H and Konishi S 1990 Effect of the formation of a sugar-borate complex on the growth inhibition of pollen tubes of Camellia sinensis and cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum by toxic levels of borate. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 36, 275-281.Google Scholar
  155. Zyrin N G and Zborishchuk J N 1975 Boron in the ploughed layer of soils of the European part of the USSR. Pochvovedenise 5, 44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross O. Nable
    • 1
  • Gary S. Bañuelos
    • 2
  • Jeffrey G. Paull
    • 3
  1. 1.CSIRO Land and Water, P.M.B., P.OAitkenvaleAustralia
  2. 2.Water Management Research LaboratoryUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant Science, Waite CampusUniversity of AdelaideGlen OsmondAustralia

Personalised recommendations