, Volume 432, Issue 1–3, pp 149–157 | Cite as

Effects of marine ciliates on survivability of the first-feeding larval surgeonfish, Paracanthurus hepatus: laboratory rearing experiments

  • Naoki NaganoEmail author
  • Yukio Iwatsuki
  • Takashi Kamiyama
  • Hideaki Nakata


The contribution of ciliates as a food source to survival of first-feeding surgeonfish larvae, Paracanthurus hepatus, was examined in rearing experiments. The larvae were exposed to eight treatments; i.e. a tintinnid, Amphorellopsis acuta (1.0 × 104, 5.1 × 103 and 2.2 × 103 cells l−1) and a naked ciliate, Euplotes sp. (1.3 × 104, 8.0 × 103 and 5.0 × 103 cells l−1), plus two controls without ciliates. Highest survival of the larvae over the first 4–8 days was observed in the highest density of A. acuta. Rearing experiments also showed that the survivals of larvae fed with A. acuta were higher than those fed with Euplotes sp. Gut content analyses revealed loricae of A. acuta in the larvae. Although Euplotes sp. (lacking loricae) was never recognized in those larval guts, feeding on Euplotes sp. by larvae was confirmed using the ciliate labeled with fluorescent microspheres, implying that the feeding on naked ciliates by fish larvae has been overlooked. The results strongly suggested that both tintinnid and naked ciliates play important roles as alternative food sources to copepod nauplii by enhancing the survivability of fish larvae, especially those with a smaller mouth.

ciliates fish larvae first-feeding survival fluorescent microspheres 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naoki Nagano
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yukio Iwatsuki
    • 3
  • Takashi Kamiyama
    • 4
  • Hideaki Nakata
    • 5
  1. 1.The United Graduate School of Agricultural SciencesMiyazaki UniversityJapan
  2. 2.Kagoshima UniversityMiyazakiJapan
  3. 3.Division of Fisheries Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureMiyazaki UniversityMiyazakiJapan
  4. 4.Coastal Environment and Productivity DivisionNational Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland SeaHiroshimaJapan
  5. 5.Ocean Research InstituteUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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