Genetica

, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 91–100

Geographical Clines for Quantitative Traits in Natural Populations of a Tropical Drosophilid: Zaprionus Indianus

  • Dev Karan
  • Seema Dubey
  • Brigitte Moreteau
  • Ravi Parkash
  • Jean R. David
Article

Abstract

We analyzed natural populations of Zaprionus indianusin 10 Indian localities along a south-north transect (latitude: 10–31°3 N). Size traits (body weight, wing length and thorax length) as well as a reproductive trait (ovariole number) followed a pattern of clinal variation, that is, trait value increased with latitude. Wing/thorax ratio, which is inversely related to wing loading, also had a positive, but non-significant correlation with latitude. By contrast, bristle numbers (sternopleural and abdominal) exhibited a non-significant but negative correlation with latitude. Sex dimorphism, estimated as the female/male ratio, was very low in Z. indianus, contrasting with results already published in other species. Genetic variations among populations were also analyzed according to other geographic parameters (altitude and longitude) and to climatic conditions from each locality. A significant effect of altitude was found for size traits. For abdominal bristles, a multiple regression technique evidenced a significant effect of both latitude and altitude, but in opposite directions. Genetic variations were also correlated to climate, and mainly with average year temperature. Taking seasonal variations into account failed however to improve the predictability of morphometrical variations. The geographic differentiation of Z.indianusfor quantitative traits suggests adaptive response to local conditions, especially to temperature, but also reveals a complex situation according to traits investigated and to environmental parameters, which does not match results on other drosophilid species.

altitude clines latitude phenotypic variability temperature Zaprionus indianus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson, D. & R.M. Sibly, 1997.Why are organisms usually bigger in colder environments? Making sense of a life history puzzle. Trends Ecol. Evol. 12: 235–239.Google Scholar
  2. Azevedo, R.B.R., A.C., James, J. McCabe & L. Partridge, 1998. Latitudinal variation of wing: Thorax size ratio and wing-aspect ratio in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 52: 1353–1362.Google Scholar
  3. Bryant, E.H., 1977. Morphometric adaptation of the housefly, Musca domesticaL., in the United States. Evolution 31: 580–596.Google Scholar
  4. Boulétreau-Merle, J., R. Allemand, Y. Cohet & J.R. David, 1982. Reproductive strategy in Drosophila melanogaster: significance of a genetic divergence between temperate and tropical populations. Oecologia 53: 323–329.Google Scholar
  5. Capy, P., E, Pla & J.R. David, 1993. Phenotypic and genetic variability of morphometrical traits in natural populations of Drosophila melanogasterand D. simulans. I. Geographic variations. Genet. Sel. Evol. 25: 517–536.Google Scholar
  6. Capy, P., E. Pla & J.R. David, 1994. Phenotypic and genetic variability of morphometrical traits in natural populations of Drosophila melanogasterand D. simulans. II. Within population variability. Genet. Sel. Evol. 26: 15–28.Google Scholar
  7. Coyne, J.A. & E. Beecham, 1987. Heritability of two morphological characters within and among natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 117: 727–737.Google Scholar
  8. David, J.R. & C. Bocquet, 1975. Evolution in a cosmopolitan species: genetic latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogasterwild populations. Experientia 31: 164–166.Google Scholar
  9. David, J.R., 1979. Attractive behavior toward human constructions helps to explain the domestic and cosmopolitan status of some Drosophilids. Experientia 35: 1436–1437.Google Scholar
  10. David, J.R. & O. Kitagawa, 1982. Possible similarities in ethanol tolerance and latitudinal variations between Drosophila virilisand D. melanogaster. Jap. J. Genet. 57: 89–95.Google Scholar
  11. David, J.R. & P. Capy, 1988. Genetic variation of Drosophila melanogasternatural populations. Trends Genet. 4: 106–111.Google Scholar
  12. David, J.R., C. Bocquet & M. de Scheemaeker-Louis, 1977. Genetic latitudinal adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster: new discriminative biometrical traits between European and equatorial African populations. Genet. Res. Camb. 30: 247–255.Google Scholar
  13. David, J.R., B. Moreteau, J.R. Gauthier, G. Pétavy, J. Stockel & A. Imasheva, 1994. Reaction norms of size characters in relation to growth temperature in Drosophila melanogaster: an isofemale lines analysis. Genet. Sel. Evol. 26: 229–251.Google Scholar
  14. Endler, J.A., 1977. Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  15. Endler, J.A., 1986. Natural Selection in the Wild. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  16. Gibert, P., B. Moreteau, J.C. Moreteau & J.R. David, 1998. Genetic variability of quantitative traits in Drosophila melanogaster(fruit fly) natural populations: analysis of wild living flies of several laboratory generations. Heredity 80: 326–335.Google Scholar
  17. Huey, R.B., G.W. Gilchrist, M.L. Carlson, D. Berrigan & L. Serra, 2000. Rapid evolution of a geographic cline in size in an introduced fly. Science 287: 308–309.Google Scholar
  18. Imasheva, A.G., O.A. Bubli & O.E. Lazebny, 1994. Variation in wing length in Eurasian natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Heredity 72: 508–514.Google Scholar
  19. James, A.C., R.B.R. Azevedo & L. Partridge, 1995. Cellular basis and developmental timing in a size cline of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 140: 659–666.Google Scholar
  20. Karan, D., A.K. Munjal, P. Gibert, B. Moreteau, R. Parkash & J.R. David, 1998a. Latitudinal clines for morphometrical traits in Drosophila kikkawai: a study of natural populations from the Indian subcontinent. Genet. Res. 70: 31–38.Google Scholar
  21. Karan, D., N. Dahiya, A.K. Munjal, P. Gibert, B. Moreteau, R. Parkash & J.R. David, 1998b. Desiccation and starvation tolerance of adult Drosophila: opposite latitudinal clines in natural populations of three different species. Evolution 52: 825–831.Google Scholar
  22. Karan, D., B. Moreteau & J.R. David, 1999. Growth temperature and reaction norms of morphometrical traits in a tropical drosophilid: Zaprionus indianus. Heredity 83: 398–407.Google Scholar
  23. Mayr, E., 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Mayr, E., 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  25. Misra, R.K. & E.C.R. Reeve, 1964. Clines in body dimensions in populations of Drosophila subobscura. Genet. Res. 5: 240–256.Google Scholar
  26. Morin, J.P., B. Moreteau, G. Pétavy, A.G. Imasheva & J.R. David, 1996. Body size and developmental temperature in Drosophila simulans. Comparison of reaction norms with sympatric Drosophila melanogaster. Genet. Sel. Evol. 28: 415–436.Google Scholar
  27. Munjal, A.K., D. Karan, P. Gibert, B. Moreteau, R. Parkash & J.R. David, 1997. Thoracic trident pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster: Latitudinal and altitudinal clines in Indian populations. Genet. Sel. Evol. 29: 601–610.Google Scholar
  28. Partridge, L., B. Barrie, K. Fowler & V. French, 1994. Evolution and development of body size and cell size in Drosophila melanogasterin response to temperature. Evolution 48: 1269–1276.Google Scholar
  29. Pétavy, G., J.P. Morin, B. Moreteau & J.R. David, 1997. Growth temperature and phenotypic plasticity in two Drosophilasibling species: probable adaptive changes in flight capacities. J. Evol. Biol. 10: 875–887.Google Scholar
  30. Prevosti, A., 1955. Geographical variability in quantitative traits in populations of D. subobscura. Cold Spring Harber Symposia on Quantitative Biology 20: 294–299.Google Scholar
  31. Stalker, H.D., 1980. Chromosome studies in wild population of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Relationships of inversion frequencies to latitude, season, wing loading and flight activity. Genetics 95: 211–223.Google Scholar
  32. Stalker, H.D. & H.L. Carson, 1947. Morphological variation in natural populations of Drosophila robustaSturtevant. Evolution 1: 237–248.Google Scholar
  33. Stalker, H.D. & H.L. Carson, 1948. An altitudinal transect of Drosophila robustaSturtevant. Evolution 2: 295–305.Google Scholar
  34. Statistica., 1997. Statistics. Rel. 5.1. Statistica Statsoft Inc., Tulsa, OK.Google Scholar
  35. Tantawy, A.O. & G.S. Mallah, 1961. Studies on natural populations of Drosophila. 1. Heat resistance and geographic variation of Drosophila melanogasterand D. simulans. Evolution 15: 1–14.Google Scholar
  36. Tsacas, L., D. Lachaise & J.R. David, 1981. Composition and biogeography of the Afrotropical drosophilid fauna, pp. 197–259 in The Genetic and Biology of Drosophila edited by M. Ashburner, H.L. Carson & J.N. Thompson, Jr. (eds), vol. 3a, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  37. Tsacas, L., 1980. L'identité de Zaprionus vittigerCoquillet et révision des espèces tropicales affines. Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 85: 141–153.Google Scholar
  38. Van't Land, J., P. Van Puttten, B. Zwaan, A. Kamping & W. Van Delden, 1999. Latitudinal variation in the wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster: heritabilities and reaction norms. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 222–232.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dev Karan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seema Dubey
    • 1
  • Brigitte Moreteau
    • 2
  • Ravi Parkash
    • 1
  • Jean R. David
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesMaharshi Dayanand UniversityRohtak-India
  2. 2.Laboratoire Populations, Génétique et EvolutionCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueGif-sur-Yvette CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations