, Volume 420, Issue 1, pp 63–71 | Cite as

Genetics of marine bioinvasions

  • B. S. Holland


Anthropogenic biological introductions have captured the attention of marine scientists and resource managers in recent years. Human-mediated marine bioinvasions are presently acknowledged as often ecologically and financially devastating events. Despite recent increases in scientific interest and financial resources devoted to nonindigenous nuisance species globally, fundamental questions pertaining to taxonomic identity, geographic source, introduction vector and invasive population dynamics frequently remain unanswered. Ecological surveys based on photometric and observational methods are unable to identify cryptogenic taxa, source populations, multiple introductions, or genetic diversity. The twofold goal of this paper is to discuss the application of molecular genetic techniques to fundamental ecological questions pertaining to bioinvasions and to demonstrate the utility of DNA technology in providing data useful in the development of predictive models for marine bioinvasion science.

ballast water conservation invasive species population structure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alvarez-Buylla, E. R. & A. A. Garay, 1994. Population genetic structure of Cecropia obtusifolia, a tropical pioneer tree species. Evolution 48: 437–453.Google Scholar
  2. Ayala, F. J., 1982. Population and Evolutionary Genetics: a Primer. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing, Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
  3. Bayne, B. L., 1976. Marine Mussels: their Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  4. Boileau, M. G. & P. D. N. Hebert, 1993. Genetics of the Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in populations from the Great Lakes Region and Europe. In Nalepa, T. F. & D. W. Schloesser (eds), Zebra Mussels; Biology, Impacts and Control. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida: 227–238.Google Scholar
  5. Carlton, J. T., 1989. Man's role in changing the face of the ocean: biological invasions and implications for conservation of nearshore environments. Con. Biol. 3: 265–273.Google Scholar
  6. Carlton, J. T. & J. B. Geller, 1993. Ecological roulette: The global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78–82.Google Scholar
  7. Carlton, J. T., J. K. Thompson, L. E. Schemel & F. H. Nichols, 1990. Remarkable invasion of the San Francisco Bay by Potamocorbula amurensis. I Introduction and dispersal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 81–94.Google Scholar
  8. Duda, T. F., 1994. Genetic population structure of the recently introduced Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay. Mar. Biol. 119: 235–241.Google Scholar
  9. Davies, N., F. X. Villablanca & G. K. Roderick, 1999. Determining the source of individuals: multilocus genotyping in nonequilibrium population genetics. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 17–21.Google Scholar
  10. Ehrlich, P. R., 1986. Which animals will invade? In Drake, J. A. & H. A. Mooney (eds), Ecology of Invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, New York: 79–95.Google Scholar
  11. Elton, C. S., 1958. The Ecology of Invasion by Plants and Animals. Methuen and Co. Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  12. Garton, D. W. & W. R. Haag, 1991. Heterozygosity, shell length and metabolism in the European mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, from a recently established population in Lake Erie. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 99A: 45–48.Google Scholar
  13. Gaffney, P. M., T. M. Scott, R. K. Koehn & W. J. Diehl, 1990. Interrelationships of heterozygosity, growth rate and heterozygote deficiencies in the coot clam Mulinia lateralis. Genetics 124: 687–699.Google Scholar
  14. Grant, W. S. & M. I. Cherry, 1985. Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk.) in southern Africa. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 90: 179–191.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, W. S., A. C. Schneider, R. W. Leslie & M. I. Cherry, 1992. Population genetics of the brown mussel Perna perna in southern Africa. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 165: 45–58.Google Scholar
  16. Hamer, M., 1991. Toxic hitchhikers conquer the world's oceans. New Scientist, March 23: 23 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Hare, M. P. & J. C. Avise, 1996. Molecular genetic analysis of a stepped multilocus cline in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Evolution 50: 2305–2315.Google Scholar
  18. Hartl, D. L. & A. G. Clark, 1997. Principles of population genetics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  19. Hebert, P. D. N., B. W. Muncaster & G. L. Mackie, 1989. Ecological and genetic studies on Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a new mollusc in the Great Lakes. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 46: 1587–1591.Google Scholar
  20. Hedgpeth, J. W., 1993. Foreign invaders. Science 261: 34–35.Google Scholar
  21. Holland, B. S., 1997. Genetic architecture of a biological invasion: Geographic pattern of genetic variation in the brown mussel, Perna perna, from natural and nonindigenous populations. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  22. Holland, B. S., D. W. Hicks, D. Gallagher & S. K. Davis, 1999. Cytotaxonomic verification of a nonindigenous marine mussel in the Gulf of Mexico. Veliger 42: 281–283.Google Scholar
  23. Johnson, M. S., 1988. Founder effects and geographic variation in the land snail Theba pisana. Heredity 61: 133–142.Google Scholar
  24. Knight, A. J., R. N. Hughes & R. D. Ward, 1987. A striking example of the founder effect in the mollusc Litorina saxatalis. Biol. J. linn. Soc. 32: 417–426.Google Scholar
  25. Koehn, R. K., 1991. The genetics and taxonomy of species in the genus Mytilus. Aquaculture 94: 125–145.Google Scholar
  26. Koehn, R. K., R. Milkman & J. B. Mitton, 1976. Population genetics of marine pelecypods. IV. Selection, migration and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Evolution 30: 2–32.Google Scholar
  27. Kuris, A., 1999. Panel discussion: comment on the premise. In Proceedings of the First National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  28. Levinton, J. S. & R. K. Koehn, 1976. Population genetics of mussels. In Bayne, B. L. (ed.), Marine Mussels, their Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts: 357–384.Google Scholar
  29. Locke, A., J. T. Carlton, D. M. Reid, W. G. Sprules & H. C. Van Leeuwen, 1993. Ballast water exchange as ameans of controlling dispersal of freshwater organisms by ships. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 50: 2089–2093.Google Scholar
  30. Marshall, T. C., J. Slate, L. E. B. Kruuk & J. M. Pemberton, 1998. Statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations. Mol. Ecol. 7: 639–655.Google Scholar
  31. May, B. & J. E. Marsden, 1992. Genetic identification and implications of another invasive species of dreissenid mussel in the Great Lakes. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 49: 1501–1506.Google Scholar
  32. Mayr, E., 1963. Animal Species and Evolution. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  33. McLeod, M. J., 1986. Electrophoretic variation in North American Corbicula. Am. malac. Bull. 2: 125–132.Google Scholar
  34. Meehan, B. W., J. T. Carlton & R. Wenne, 1989. Genetic affinities of the bivalve Macoma balthica from the Pacific coast of North America: Evidence for recent introduction and historical distribution. Mar. Biol. 102: 235–241.Google Scholar
  35. Mills, E. L., J. H. Leach, J. T. Carlton & C. L. Secor, 1994. Exotic species and the integrity of the Great Lakes. BioScience 44: 666–676.Google Scholar
  36. Mooney, H. A. & J. A. Drake, 1989. Biological Invasions: A SCOPE Program Overview. Pages. In Drake, J. A. & H. A. Mooney (eds), Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective. Wiley, New York: 491–508.Google Scholar
  37. Nevo, E., A. Beiles & R. Ben-Schlomo, 1984. The evolutionary significance of genetic diversity: ecological, demographic and life history correlates. In Mani, G. S. (ed.), Evolutionary Dynamics of Genetic Diversity. Springer, Heidelberg: 13–212.Google Scholar
  38. Norse, E., 1993. Global marine biological diversity: a strategy for building conservation into decision making. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  39. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) (U.S. Congress), 1993. Harmful nonindigenous species in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Quammen, D., 1996. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. Scribner, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Rannala, B. & J. L. Mountain, 1997. Detecting immigration using multilocus genotypes. Proc. natnl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94: 9197–9201.Google Scholar
  42. Schormann, J., J. T. Carlton & M. R. Dochoda, 1990. The ship as a vector in biotic invasions. Mar. Eng. Digest. Oct 1990: 18–22.Google Scholar
  43. Selander, R. K. & H. Ochman, 1983. The genetic structure of populations as illustrated by molluscs. Isozymes 10: 93–123.Google Scholar
  44. Selander, R. K., M. H. Smith, S. Y. Yang, W. E. Johnson & J. R. Gentry, 1971. Biochemical polymorphism and systematics in the genus Peromyscus. Univ. Texas Publ. 7103: 49–90.Google Scholar
  45. Singh, S. M. & E. Zouros, 1978. Genetic variation associated with growth rate in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Evolution 32: 342–353.Google Scholar
  46. Slatkin, M., 1985. Gene flow in natural populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 393–430.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, M. H., J. Britton, P. Burke, R. K. Chesser, M. W. Smith & J. Hagen, 1979. Genetic variability in Corbicula, an invading species. In Britton, J. C. (ed.), Proceedings, First International Corbicula Symposium. Texas Christian University Research Foundation, Fort Worth, Texas: 244–248.Google Scholar
  48. Utter, F. & N. Ryman, 1993. Genetic markers and mixed stock fisheries. Fisheries 18: 11–21.Google Scholar
  49. Vermeij, G. J., 1992. Trans-equatorial connections between biotas in the temperate eastern Atlantic. Mar. Biol. 112: 343–348.Google Scholar
  50. Waser, P. M. & C. Strobeck, 1998. Genetic signatures of interpopulation dispersal. Trends Ecol. Evol. 13: 43–44.Google Scholar
  51. Woodruff, D. S., M. Mulvey & M. W. Yipp, 1985. Population genetics of Biomphalaria straminea in Hong Kong. Heredity 76: 355–360.Google Scholar
  52. Woodruff, D. S., L. L. McMeekin, M. Mulvey & M. P. Carpenter, 1986. Population genetics of Crepidula onyx: variation in a California slipper snail recently established in China. Veliger 29: 53–63.Google Scholar
  53. Wright, S., 1931. Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics 16: 97–159.Google Scholar
  54. Wright, S., 1965. The interpretation of population structure by Fstatistics with special regard to systems of mating. Evolution 19: 395–420.Google Scholar
  55. Zouros, E. & D. W. Foltz, 1984. Possible explanations of heterozygosity deficiency in bivalve molluscs. Malacologia 25: 583–591.Google Scholar
  56. Zouros, E., 1987. On the relation between heterozygosity and heterosis: An evaluation of the evidence from marine mollusks. Isozymes: Curr. Top. biol. med. Res. 15: 255–277.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Holland
    • 1
  1. 1.Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Pacific Biomedical Research CenterUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations