, Volume 406, Issue 0, pp 21–31 | Cite as

Zoogeography of branchiobdellidans (Annelida) and temnocephalidans (Platyhelminthes) ectosymbiotic on freshwater crustaceans, and their reactions to one another in vitro

  • Stuart R. Gelder


The zoogeographical distribution of branchiobdellidans (Annelida) and temnocephalidans (Platyhelminthes), ectosymbiotic on freshwater crustaceans, is reviewed and revised. In the areas where the Holarctic branchiobdellidans and Gondwanian temnocephalidans overlap, distributions of species and their respective hosts are reviewed in detail. Specimens of the branchiobdellid, Branchiobdella astaci, and the scutariellid temnocephalidan, Bubalocerus pretneri, were allowed to meet in vitro on the dorsal carapace of a crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes. This usually resulted in the scutariellid being ingested by a branchiobdellid. Specimens of B. astaci were placed in contact with the host of B. pretneri, Troglocaris sp., a cave-dwelling shrimp and the branchiobdellid immediately moved away from the shrimp.

Annelida branchiobdellidans Platyhelminthes temnocephalidans biogeography interactions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Annandale, H., 1912. Caridinicola, a new type of Temnocephaloidea. Rec. Ind. Mus. 7: 243–253.Google Scholar
  2. Avenant-Oldewage, A., 1993. Occurrence of Temnocephala chaeropsis on Cherax tenuimanus imported into South Africa, and notes on its infestation of an indigenous crab. S. Afr. J. Sci. 89: 427–428.Google Scholar
  3. Banarescu, P., 1990. Zoogeography of Fresh Waters. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1617 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Boshko, E. G., 1983. Small worms dwelling on river crayfish of some water bodies in the Ukraine. Vestnik zool. 7: 13–20.Google Scholar
  5. Cannon, L. R. G., 1986. Turbellaria of the World. A Guide to Families & Genera. Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Australia, 136 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Cannon, L. R. G., 1993. New temnocephalans (Platyhelminthes): ectosymbionts of freshwater crabs and shrimps. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 33: 17–40.Google Scholar
  7. Cannon, L. R. G. & K. B. Sewell, 1994. Symbionts and biodiversity. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 36: 33–40.Google Scholar
  8. Cannon, L. R. G. & K. B. Sewell, 1995. Craspedellinae Baer, 1931 (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida) ectosymbionts from the branchial chamber of Australian crayfish (Crustacea: Parastacidae). Mem. Queensl. Mus. 38: 397–418.Google Scholar
  9. Chauhan, B. S. & G. Ramakrishna, 1954. Temnocephala semperi Weber, 1890 from the Narmada River, with a note on other Temnocephalid material in the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Rec. Indian Mus. 51: 421–425.Google Scholar
  10. Franzén, Å., 1962. Notes on the morphology and histology of Xironogiton instabila (Moore, 1893) (Fam. Branchiobdellidae) with special reference to the muscle cells. Zool. Bidr. Upps. 35: 369–383.Google Scholar
  11. Gasparo, F., A. Minelli & P. Brandayr, 1984. First report of temnocephalids in Italy. Boll. zool. ital. 51(suppl.): 51.Google Scholar
  12. Gelder, S. R., 1987. Observations on three species of branchiobdellid (Annelida: Clitellata) worms from eastern Asia. Hydrobiologia 155: 15–25.Google Scholar
  13. Gelder, S. R., 1991. New location reports of Nearctic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata). Can. Field-nat. 105: 390–391.Google Scholar
  14. Gelder, S. R., 1996. A review of the taxonomic nomenclature and a checklist of the species of the Branchiobdellae (Annelida: Clitellata). Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 109: 653–663.Google Scholar
  15. Gelder, S. R. & R. O. Brinkhurst, 1990. An assessment of the phylogeny of the Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata) using PAUP. Can. J. Zool. 68: 1318–1326.Google Scholar
  16. Gelder, S. R., G. B. Delmastro & M. Ferraguti, 1994. A report on branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata) and a taxonomic key to the species in northern Italy, including the first record of Cambarincola mesochoreus on the introduced American red swamp crayfish. Boll. Zool. 61: 179–183.Google Scholar
  17. Gelder, S. R. & L. A. Hall, 1990. Description of Xironogiton victoriensis n. sp. from British Columbia, Canada, with remarks on other species and a Wagner analysis of Xironogiton (Clitellata: Branchiobdellida). Can. J. Zool. 68: 2352–2359.Google Scholar
  18. Gelder, S. R. & R. C. Smith, 1986. Distribution of branchiobdellids (Annelida: Clitellata) in northern Maine, U.S.A. Trans. am. microsc. Soc. 106: 85–88.Google Scholar
  19. Gravely, F. H., 1913. Temnocephalidae. Rec. indian Mus. 8: 229–232.Google Scholar
  20. Georgévitch, J., 1955. Sur les Branchiobdellides des écrevisses du Lac Dojran. Acta Mus. Macedonici Sci. Nat., Skopje 2: 199–221.Google Scholar
  21. Georgévitch, J., 1957. Les Branchiobdellides de Yougoslavie. Bull. Acad. Serbe Sci. Cl. Sci. Math. Nat. 5: 5–25.Google Scholar
  22. Hobbs, H. H. Jr., 1988. Crayfish distribution, adaptive radiation and evolution. In D. M. Holdich & R. S. Lowery (eds), Freshwater Crayfish: Biology, Management and Exploitation. Timber Press, Portland (Oregon), U.S.A.: 52–82.Google Scholar
  23. Hobbs, H. H. Jr., 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithson. Contr. Zool. 480: 1–236.Google Scholar
  24. Hobbs, H. H. Jr., & A. Villalobos. 1958. The exoskeleton of a freshwater crab as a microhabitat for several invertebrates. Virginia J. Sci. 9: 395–396.Google Scholar
  25. Hobbs, H. H. Jr., P. C. Holt & M. Walton, 1967. The crayfishes and their epizootic ostracod and branchiobdellid associates of the Mountain Lake, Virginia, region. Proc. U.S. nat.Mus. 123: 1–84.Google Scholar
  26. Holt, P. C., 1964. A new branchiobdellid (Annelida) from Costa Rica. Tulane Stud. Zool. 12: 1–4.Google Scholar
  27. Holt, P. C., 1973. A summary of the branchiobdellid (Annelida: Clitellata) fauna of Mesoamerica. Smithson. Contr. Zool. 142: 1–40.Google Scholar
  28. Holt, P. C., 1986. Newly established families of the order Branchiobdellida (Annelida: Clitellata) with a synopsis of the genera. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 99: 676–702.Google Scholar
  29. Honjô, I., 1937. Physiological study on the neuromuscular system of lower worms. 1. Caridinicola. Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Univ. ser. B, 12: 187–210.Google Scholar
  30. Humphries, C. J. & L. R. Parenti, 1990. Cladistic biogeography. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U. K. 98 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Huner, J. V. & J. E. Barr, 1991. Red swamp crayfish: biology and exploitation. Louisiana Sea Grant College Program, 128 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Jennings, J. B., 1968a. Feeding digestion and food storage in two species of Temnocephalid flatworms (Turbellaria: Rhabdocoela). J. Zool. Lond. 156: 1–8.Google Scholar
  33. Jennings, J. B., 1968b. A new Temnocephalid flatworm from Costa Rica. J. nat. Hist., Lond. 156: 117–120.Google Scholar
  34. Jennings, J. B., 1971. Parasitism and commensalism in the Turbellaria. Adv. Parasit. 9: 1–32.Google Scholar
  35. Jennings, J. B. & S. R. Gelder, 1979. Gut structure, feeding and digestion in the branchiobdellid oligochaete Cambarincola macrodonta Ellis 1912, an ectosymbiote of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Biol. Bull. 156: 300–314.Google Scholar
  36. Joffe, B. I. & R. A. Djanashvili, 1981. First record of temnocephalids in the territory of the U.S.S.R. Parasitol. (Leningrad) 24: 473–481.Google Scholar
  37. Joffe, B. I., I. V. Solovei, N. A. Watson & L. R. G. Cannon, 1997. Structure and evolution of the pharynx in the Temnocephalida (Platyhelminthes). Can. J. Zool. 75: 205–226.Google Scholar
  38. Jones, T. C. & R. G. J. Lester, 1993. Aspects of the biology and pathogenicity of Diceratocephala boschmai (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida), an ectosymbiont on the Redclawed cray-fish, Cherax quadricarinatus. Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 44: 927–933.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, T. C. & R. G. J. Lester, 1996. Factors influencing populations of the ectosymbiont Diceratocephala boschmai (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida), on the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus maintained under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture 143: 233–243.Google Scholar
  40. Kamita, H., 1970. Studies on the freshwater shrimps, prawns and crawfishes of Japan. Sonoyama Shoten, Matsue, Japan, 213 pp. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  41. Karaman, S. M., 1970. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der europaischen Branchiobdelliden (Clitellata, Branchiobdellidea). Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 55: 325–33.Google Scholar
  42. Kawakatsu, M., N. Nunomura & H. Suzuki, 1989. Corrections and emendations of specific names of several Japanese species of turbellarians (Acoela, Tricladida-Maricola, Polycladida-Cotylea, and Temnocephalida-Scutariellidata) and Nemertinea (Enopla-Hoplonemertea-Monostylifera). Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. No. 27, ser. II: 41–51.Google Scholar
  43. Kemp, S., 1917. Notes on Crustacea Decapoda in the Indian museum. XI Atyidae of the genus Paratya (=Xiphocaridina). Rec. Ind. Mus. 13: 293–306.Google Scholar
  44. Kobayashi, H., 1935. Observation on Caridinicola indica, a Temnocephalen parasite of Xiphocaridina compressa in Lake Biwa. Bot. et Zool. 3: 2124–2128.Google Scholar
  45. Kosarov, G., P. Michailova & M. A. Subchev. 1972. Studies on the Branchiobdellidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida) of Bulgaria. Ann. Univ. Sofia Kliment Ochridski-Fac. Biol. 64: 77–89.Google Scholar
  46. Kraus, O., 1954. Temnocephala brevicornis en El Salvador. Comun. Inst. Trop. Invest. Cient. 3: 19–20.Google Scholar
  47. Lee, L. Y., 1936. Temnocephala semperi Weber on crab Potamon sp. South China. Contr. Inst. zool. Acad. Peiping 3: 127–129.Google Scholar
  48. Leeke, C. J. & A. Price, 1965. Branchiobdella astaci Odier (Oligochaeta, Annelida). Reading Nat. 17: 18–19.Google Scholar
  49. Liang, Y.-L., 1963. Studies on the aquatic Oligochaeta of China. I. Descriptions of new naids and branchiobdellids. Acta Zool. sinica 15: 560–570.Google Scholar
  50. Lui, S.-C., 1984. Descriptions of two new species of the genus Stephanodrilus from Northeast China and notes on St. truncatus Liang from Guangdong Province (Oligochaeta: Branchiobdellidae). Acta Zootaxon. sinica 9: 351–355.Google Scholar
  51. Liu, S.-C. & D.-C. Zhang, 1983. Three new species of the genus Branchiobdellida (Oligochaeta: Branchiobdellidae) from China. Acta Zootaxon. sinica 8: 246–251.Google Scholar
  52. Lowery, R. S. & D. M. Holdich, 1988. Pacifastacus leniusculus in North America and Europe, with details of the distribution of introduced and native crayfish species in Europe. In D. M. Holdich & R. S. Lowery (eds), Freshwater Crayfish: Biology, Management and Exploitation. Timber Press, Portland (Oregon), U.S.A.: 283–308.Google Scholar
  53. Matjasic, J., 1990. Monograph of the family Scutariellidae (Turbellaria, Temnocephalidea). Slovenska Akademija Znanosti in Umetnosti, Ljubljana, 166 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Moquin-Tandon, A., 1846. Monographie de la famille des Hirudines. J.-B. Bailliere, Paris, 448 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Moszyński, A., 1938. Oligochtes parasites de l'crevisse (Potamobius astacus L.) de la Yougoslavie. Bull. Soc. Sci. Skopje 18: 69–75.Google Scholar
  56. Mrazek, A., 1907. Ein europischer Vertreter der Gruppe Temnocephaloidea. Sitz.. K. Bhm. Ges. wiss. Prag 11: 1–7.Google Scholar
  57. Nesemann, H., 1994. The epizoic leeches found on crayfishes of the basin of the Upper Danube (Austria, Germany) with an identification key to the European species (Clitellata, Branchiobdellida). Lauterbornia 19: 79–93.Google Scholar
  58. Negishi, H., 1935. Notes on Caridina indica Annandale, found in the vicinity of Hirosaki in Aomori Prefecture. Botany zool., Tokyo 4: 949–952 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  59. Nishino, M., 1981. Brood habits of two subspecies of a freshwater shrimp, Paratya compressa (Decapoda, Atyidae) and their geographical variations. Jap. J. limnol. 42: 201–219 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  60. Oki, I., S. Tamura, M. Takai & M. Kawakatsu, 1995. Chromosomes of Temnocephala minor, an ectosymbiotic turbellarian on Australian crayfish found in Kagoshima Prefecture, with karyological notes on exotic turbellarians found in Japan. Hydrobiologia 305: 71–77.Google Scholar
  61. Pierantoni, U., 1912. Monografia dei Discodrilidae. Ann. Mus. Zool. R. Univ. Napoli 3: 1–27.Google Scholar
  62. Ponce de León, R., 1979. Especies americanas de Temnocephalidea Benham (Platyhelmintha), 1. Descripcion de Temnocephala rochensis n. sp. de la camara paleal de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck). Rev. Biol. Uruguay 7: 39–43.Google Scholar
  63. Rohde, K., 1966. AMalayan record of Temnocephala sempari, ectocommensal on the freshwater crab Potamon rafflesi Roux. Med. J. Malaya 20: 356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Schaefer, C. W., 1971. Observations on temnocephalid hosts and distributions. Sonder. Z. zool. Syst. Evolut. 9: 139–143.Google Scholar
  65. Semper, C., 1872. Zoologische Ajhoismen II. über die Gattung Temnocephala. Z. wiss. Zool. 22: 307–310.Google Scholar
  66. Stephenson, J., 1930. The Oligochaeta. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 978.Google Scholar
  67. Subchev, M. A., L. S. Stanimirova & T. Tomek, 1991. Distribution of branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata) on the Korean Peninsula. Acta Zool. bulg. 41: 12–17.Google Scholar
  68. Timm, T., 1991. Branchiobdellida (Oligochaeta) from the farthest South-East of the U.S.S.R. Zool. Scr. 20: 321–331.Google Scholar
  69. Umemoto, H., 1936. Notes on Caridina indica found in Tsuruoka District of Yamagata Prefecture. Botany zool., Tokyo 3: 1375–1376 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  70. Vayssière, A., 1898. Description du Temnocephala mexicana, nov. sp. Ann. Fac. Sci. Marseille 8: 227–235.Google Scholar
  71. Williams, J. B., 1981. Classification of the Temnocephala Platyhelminthes. J. nat. Hist., Lond. 15: 277–300.Google Scholar
  72. Wood-Mason J., 1875. Note on the Geographical Distribution of the ‘Temnocephala chilensis’ of Blanchard. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 15: 336–337.Google Scholar
  73. Yamaguchi, H., 1934. Studies on Japanese Branchiobdellidae with some revisions on the classification. J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. series VI, Zool. 3: 177–219.Google Scholar
  74. Yanada, T., 1955. Annual changes on the parasitic rate of Caridinicola on a freshwater shrimp, Paratya compressa improvisa. Biol. Bull., Okazaki 5: 105–109 (in Japanese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart R. Gelder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ScienceUniversity of Maine at Presque IsleU.S.A

Personalised recommendations