Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 33–60 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Adventure Programming on Locus of Control

  • Tracy A. Hans


Adventure programs utilize the outdoors and/or activities to accomplish goals that are recreational, educational, enrichment or preventive oriented, or therapeutic. These programs encourage active manipulation of surroundings and the utilization of pro-active survival skills. In the growing field of Adventure Programming (and within the more specific field of Adventure Therapy), there exists a need to link valuable program characteristics to specific outcomes. Locus of control has been theorized to be a moderator of change in adventure programs, however past research has yielded inconsistent and contradicting results. An attempt was made to replicate the effect size of 0.30 generated within the comprehensive meta-analyses of both D. R. Cason (1993) and J. Hattie, H. W. Harsh, J. T. Neill, and G. E. Richards (1997). A slightly higher effect size of 0.38 was computed, substantiating evidence that subjects across studies became significantly more internal as a result of participation. Investigation of specific outcomes yielded two possible variables as moderators of locus of control effect size: program goal and daily duration.


Public Health Social Psychology Past Research Specific Outcome High Effect 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy A. Hans
    • 1
  1. 1.Fort Lee

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