Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 33–60 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Adventure Programming on Locus of Control

  • Tracy A. Hans
Article

Abstract

Adventure programs utilize the outdoors and/or activities to accomplish goals that are recreational, educational, enrichment or preventive oriented, or therapeutic. These programs encourage active manipulation of surroundings and the utilization of pro-active survival skills. In the growing field of Adventure Programming (and within the more specific field of Adventure Therapy), there exists a need to link valuable program characteristics to specific outcomes. Locus of control has been theorized to be a moderator of change in adventure programs, however past research has yielded inconsistent and contradicting results. An attempt was made to replicate the effect size of 0.30 generated within the comprehensive meta-analyses of both D. R. Cason (1993) and J. Hattie, H. W. Harsh, J. T. Neill, and G. E. Richards (1997). A slightly higher effect size of 0.38 was computed, substantiating evidence that subjects across studies became significantly more internal as a result of participation. Investigation of specific outcomes yielded two possible variables as moderators of locus of control effect size: program goal and daily duration.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Achuff, C. L. (1997). An exploratory qualitative investigation of specific components viewed as most effective by adjudicated youth in an expedition based wilderness program. Unpublished master's thesis, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, Georgia.Google Scholar
  2. Akrakelian, M. (1980). An assessment and nursing application of the concept of locus of control. Advances in Nursing Science, 3, 25–42.Google Scholar
  3. *Anderson, A. L. (1995). The effect of a wilderness therapy program on youth-at-risk, as measured by locus of control and self-concept. Unpublished master's thesis, Brigham Young University, Salt Lake City, Utah.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, H. J. (1985). Task performance, perceived competence, and attributed causes of performance as determinants of intrinsic motivation. Academy of Management Jounal, 28, 876–888.Google Scholar
  5. Bandoroff, S. (1989). Wilderness adventure therapy for delinquent and pre-delinquent youth: A review of the literature (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 377 428).Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 46, 359–372.Google Scholar
  7. Bertolami, C. (1986). Effects of a wilderness program on self-esteem and locus of control orientations of young adults (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 266 928).Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, C. (1992). Experiential therapy with troubled youth: The ropes course for adolescent inpatients (Report No. RC 018 9335). Proceedings of the International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education, Banff, Alberta, Canada. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 353 116).Google Scholar
  9. Boyle, S. (1985). The effects of a ropes course experience on locus of control self-esteem (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(12), 4391B.Google Scholar
  10. Buie, A. (1996). National association for therapeutic wilderness camping: History. Webpage http://www.natwc.org/history.html.Google Scholar
  11. Burton, L. M. (1981). A critical analysis and review of the research on outward bound and related programs (University Microfilms No. 8122147). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 1581B.Google Scholar
  12. *Callahan, R. C. (1989). Academic and therapeutic potential of the Sierra II process: An evaluation of an adapted Outward Bound diversion program for adjudicated juvenile delinquents (University Microfilms No. AAD90–07084). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(03), 724A.Google Scholar
  13. Cason, D. R. (1993). A meta-analysis of adventure programming with adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis, Georgia College, Milledgeville, Georgia.Google Scholar
  14. *Corsica, J. (1987). Project Change: An ethnography of a social action project. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48(05), 1244A.Google Scholar
  15. *Davis-Berman, J., & Berman, D. S. (1989). The wilderness therapy program: An empirical study of its effects with adolescents in an outpatient setting. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 19, 271–281.Google Scholar
  16. Deery, B. (1983). The effect of project adventure on sixth grader's reading and math scores, and its relationship to locus of control (Doctoral dissertation, Boston College, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(02), 0435A.Google Scholar
  17. *Doyle, W. E. (1981). An outdoor-challenge experience and the affective development of college students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1981). Dissertations Abstracts International, 42, 1022A.Google Scholar
  18. *Elstad, K. L. (1989). An evaluation of the process of change during participation in an adventure challenge program for hospitalized adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis, Georgia College, Milledgeville, Georgia.Google Scholar
  19. Ewert, A. (1987). Research in experiential education: An overview. Journal of Experiential Education, 10, 4–7.Google Scholar
  20. *Fersch, E.,& Smith, M. (1978). Project Adventure-Year I, final quantitative evaluation for 1971–1972 (Report No. RC011 556). Project Adventure, Inc., Hamilton, MA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 173 059).Google Scholar
  21. Freeman, R. W., Anderson, C., Kairey, I., & Hunt, P. F. (1982). Evaluation of Camp Tortuga, a two week children's therapeutic day camp via goal attainment scaling and locus of control. Children and Youth Services Review, 4, 375–388.Google Scholar
  22. Gaar, L. (1981). Interpersonal interaction in youth offenders during a therapeutic wilderness experience: A social learning perspective (Doctoral dissertation, Emory University, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 2055B.Google Scholar
  23. Gass, M. (1993). Adventure therapy: Therapeutic applications of adventure programming. Dubesque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.Google Scholar
  24. *Gaston, D. (1978). An empirical investigation of wilderness adventure programs for teenagers: The Connecticut Wilderness School (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 178 250).Google Scholar
  25. *Gillis, H. L. (1981). The effects of camping/construction experience on the self-concepts, locus of control, and academic achievement of high school students. Unpublished Master's thesis, Middle Tennessee State University.Google Scholar
  26. Gillis, H. L., & Thomsen, D. (1996). A research update (1992–1995) of adventure therapy: Challenge activities and ropes courses, wilderness expeditions, and residential camping programs. Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Symposium. Symposium conducted at Bradford Woods, Indiana University, Martinsville, IN.Google Scholar
  27. Gordon, D. A., & Bolick, T. (1979). The role of self-reinforcement and causal attribution in children's task persistence. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 135, 255–262.Google Scholar
  28. Hahn, K. (1957). Outward bound. New York: World Books.Google Scholar
  29. Hattie, J., Marsh, H. W., Neill, J. T., & Richards, G. E. (1997). Adventure Education and Outward Bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43–87.Google Scholar
  30. Huie, J. C. (1984). A semester outward bound course: An exploratory study of effects on locus of control, values and life meanings (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(05), 1372–1373A.Google Scholar
  31. Hunter, I. R., & Purcell, K. D. (1984). Program characteristics and success in a resocialization program for adjudicated delinquents. Corrective & Social Psychiatry, 25–35.Google Scholar
  32. Johnson, B. T. (1989). Software for the meta-analytic review of research literatures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Joynt, D. (1974). Repeated obstacles, participant expectation (Rope) Project: Design and implementation of an outdoor learning experience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston College, 1974.Google Scholar
  34. Kelly, F. J., & Baer, D. J. (1969). Jesness inventory and self-concept measures for delinquent boys before and after participation in outward bound. Psychological Reports, 25, 719–724.Google Scholar
  35. Kelly, F. J., & Baer, D. J. (1971). Physical challenge as a treatment for delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 17, 437–445.Google Scholar
  36. *Langsner, S. J., & Anderson, S. C. (1987). Outdoor challenge education and self-esteem and locus of control of children with behavior disorders. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 4, 237–246.Google Scholar
  37. Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. Research with the Locus of Control Construct, 1, 15–60.Google Scholar
  38. *Marsh, H. W., Richards, G. E., & Barnes, J. (1986). Multidimensional self-concepts: The effect of participation in an Outward Bound program. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 195–204.Google Scholar
  39. *Minor, K., & Elrod, P. (1994). The effects of a probation intervention on juvenile offender's selfconcepts, loci of control, and perceptions of juvenile justice. Youth & Society, 25, 490–511.Google Scholar
  40. *Nowicki, S., & Barnes, J. (1973). Effects of a structured camp experience on locus of control orientation. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 122, 247–252.Google Scholar
  41. Nowicki, S., & Duke, M. (1974). A locus of control scale for noncollege as well as college adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 136–137.Google Scholar
  42. Nowicki, S., & Duke, M. (1983). The Nowicki-Strickland life-span locus of control scales: Construct validation. Research with the Locus of Control Construct, 2, 9–43.Google Scholar
  43. Nowicki, S., & Strickland, B. R., (1973). A locus of control scale for children. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 40, 148–154.Google Scholar
  44. *Parker, M.W. (1992). Impact of adventure interventions on traditional counseling interventions (University Microfilms No. AAD92–38474) Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(09), 4964B.Google Scholar
  45. Pawlowski, M., Holme, G., & Hafner, R. J. (1993). Wilderness therapy for psychiatric disabilities. Mental Health in Australia, 5, 8–14.Google Scholar
  46. *Powers, K. R. (1983). The effects of physical challenge training on self-concept and locus of control (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1983). Dissertations Abstract International, 44, 2364A.Google Scholar
  47. Priest, S. (1993). A new model for risk taking. The Journal of Experiential Education, 16, 50–53.Google Scholar
  48. Priest, S., & Baillie, R. (1987). Justifying the risk to others: The real razor's edge. Journal of Experiential Education, 10, 16–22.Google Scholar
  49. Priest, S., & Gass, M. A. (1998). Effective leadership in adventure programming. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  50. *Richards, G. E., VanGelder, J., & Neill, J. T. (1994). Locus of control changes on an Outward Bound standard course. Australia Outward Bound Foundation, Canberra.Google Scholar
  51. Ringer, M. (1994). Adventure therapy: A map of the field: Towards a definition of adventure therapy: Workshop Report. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  52. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal and external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, No. 609, 80, 1–28.Google Scholar
  53. *Sakofs, M., & Schuurman, D. (1991). Assessing the impact of the wilderness alternative for youth program: An Outward Bound program for adjudicated youth (Report No. RC 018 146). Greenwich, Conn: Outward Bound, Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. 339 556).Google Scholar
  54. Seligman, M. (1995). The effectiveness of psychotherapy: The Consumer Reports study. American Psychologist, 50, 965–974.Google Scholar
  55. *Shasby, G., Heuchert, C., & Gansneder, B. (1984). The effects of a structured camp experience on locus of control and self-concept of special populations. Therapeutic Recreation, 18, 32–40.Google Scholar
  56. *Stremba, R. H. (1977). A study of the relationship between participation in an outward bound program and changes in self-esteem and locus of control (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1977). University Microfilms, No. 77 27014.Google Scholar
  57. *Taylor, F. (1989). The influence of an outdoor adventure recreation class on personality type, locus of control, self-esteem, and selected issues of identity development of college students (Doctoral dissertation, San Francisco State University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(04), 1122A.Google Scholar
  58. Tholkes, B. (1994). Anxiety and outdoor adventure: A study of state anxiety and activity performance on the ropes course (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(04), 2123A.Google Scholar
  59. *Ulrey, G. (1974). Effects of outdoor education on children's locus of control. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston College, MA.Google Scholar
  60. *Wright, A. (1982). Therapeutic potential of outward bound process: An evaluation of a treatment program for juvenile delinquents (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 923A.Google Scholar
  61. Weiner, B. (1985). An attribution theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92, 548–573.Google Scholar
  62. Witman, J. P. (1993). Characteristics of adventure programs valued by adolescents in treatment. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 1, 127–135.Google Scholar
  63. Wolf, F. M. (1986). Meta-analysis: Quantitative methods for research synthesis. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  64. *Ziven, H. S. (1988). The effects of the challenge group treatment program on psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (University Microfilms No. AAD88–17729). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(10), 4567.Google Scholar
  65. *Zwart, T. (1988). The effects of a wilderness/adventure program on the self-concept, locus of control and interpersonal behavior of delinquent adolescents (Doctoral dissertation, Western Michigan University, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 1709A.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tracy A. Hans
    • 1
  1. 1.Fort Lee

Personalised recommendations