, Volume 390, Issue 1–3, pp 19–23 | Cite as

Asajirella gelatinosa in Panama: a bryozoan range extension in the Western Hemisphere (Ectoprocta: Phylactolaemata)

  • Timothy S. Wood
  • Beth Okamura


Asajirella gelatinosa, a freshwater bryozoan known previously only from eastern Asia is now reported in the Republic of Panama. Colonies were collected during April 1992 in the broad reaches of the lower Río Chagres as it enters Gatun Lake, part of the Panama Canal system. A subsequent collection in 1998 included large colonies and numerous statoblasts from a region upstream of this site in the impounded Lago Alajuela (Madden Lake). Colonies and statoblasts resemble those from Japan in almost every detail. Human transport of statoblasts is a likely cause of this disjunct distribution.

Bryozoa Phylactolaemata Asajirella Gatun Panama 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Annandale, N., 1908. Corrections as to the identity of Indian Phylactolaemata. Rec. ind. Mus. 1: 117.Google Scholar
  2. Annandale, N., 1909. A new species of Fredericella from Indian Lakes. Rec. ind. Mus. 3: 373–374.Google Scholar
  3. Annandale, N., 1911. Fresh-water sponges, hydroids, and Polyzoa. 2 (Bryozoa) Fauna of British India, London: 161–251.Google Scholar
  4. Backus, B. T. & H. Mukai, 1987. Chromosomal heteromorphism in a Japanese population of Pectinatella gelatinosa and karyotypic comparison with some other phylactolaemate bryozoans. Genetica 73: 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, C., 1933. A limnological study of certain fresh-water Polyzoa with special reference to their statoblasts. Trans. am. Microsc. Soc. 52: 271–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Croat, T. B., 1978. Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  7. Hastings, A., 1938. The Polyzoa. In Washbourne, R. & R. Jones (eds), Report of the Percy Sladen Expedition to Lake Huleh: a Contribution to the Freshwaters of Palestine. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 11: 529–535.Google Scholar
  8. Lacourt, A., 1968. A monograph of the freshwater Bryozoa-Phylactolaemata. Zool. Verhandel. 93: 159.Google Scholar
  9. Massard, J. & G. Geimer, 1995. On the occurrence of Fredericella indica Annandale, 1909 (Phylactolaemata) in Europe. In Gordon, D. et al. (eds), Bryozoans in Space and Time. Nat. Inst. Water and Atm. Sci. Wellington: 187–191.Google Scholar
  10. Massard, J., G. Geimer, H. Bromley & C. Dimentman, 1992. Additional note on the fresh and brackish water Bryozoa of Israel (Phylactolaemata, Gymnolaemata). Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxembourg 93: 199–214.Google Scholar
  11. Masters, C., 1940. Notes on subtropical plants and animals in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 40: 147–148.Google Scholar
  12. Mukai, H. & S. Oda, 1980a. Histological and histochemical studies on the epidermal system of higher phylactolaemate bryozoans. Ann. Zool. Jpn 53: 1–17.Google Scholar
  13. Mukai, H. & S. Oda, 1980b. Comparative studies on the statoblasts of higher phylactolaemate bryozoans. J. Morphol. 165: 131–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mukai, H., T. Karasawa & Y. Matsumoto, 1979. Field and laboratory studies on the growth of Pectinatella gelatinosa Oka, a freshwater bryozoan. Sci. Rep. Fac. Educ. Gunma Univ. 28: 27–57.Google Scholar
  15. Neck, R. & R. Fullington, 1983. New records of the freshwater ectoproct Pectinatella magnifica in eastern Texas. Texas J. Sci. 35: 269–271.Google Scholar
  16. Oda, S., 1974. Pectinatella magnifica occurring in Lake Shoji, Japan. Proc. jpn. Soc. Syst. Zool. 10: 31–39.Google Scholar
  17. Oda, S. & H. Mukai. 1985. Fine surface structure of the statoblasts of higher phylactolaemate bryozoans. In Nielsen, C. & G. P. Larwood (eds), Bryozoa: Ordovician to Recent. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark: 233–244.Google Scholar
  18. Oda, S. & H. Mukai, 1989. Systematic position and biology of Pectinatella gelatinosa Oka (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) with the description of a new genus. Zool. Sci. 6: 401–408.Google Scholar
  19. Oda, S. & R. Nakamura, 1980. Sexual reproduction in Pectinatella gelatinosa, a freshwater bryozoan. Proc. jpn. Soc. Syst. Zool. 19: 38–44.Google Scholar
  20. Oka, A., 1890. Observations on freshwater Polyzoa (Pectinatella gelatinosa n. sp.), J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Japan 4: 89–150.Google Scholar
  21. Poirrier, M., 1990. Freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillidae) from Panama. Hydrobiologia 194: 203–205.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, D., 1989. On Stephanella hina Oka (Ectoprocta: Phylactolaemata) in North America, with notes on its morphology and systematics. J. am. benthol. Soc. 7: 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Toriumi, M., 1941a. Studies on Freshwater Bryozoa of Japan I. Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Imp. Univ. Ser. 4, 16: 193–215.Google Scholar
  24. Toriumi, M., 1941b. Studies on Freshwater Bryozoa of Japan. II. Freshwater Bryozoa of Tyôsen (Korea). Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Imp. Univ. Ser. 4, 16: 413–425.Google Scholar
  25. Toriumi, M., 1942. Studies on Freshwater Bryozoa of Japan. III. Freshwater bryozoa of Taiwan (Formosa). Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Imp. Univ., Ser. 4, 17: 207–214.Google Scholar
  26. Toriumi, M., 1956. Taxonomical study on fresh-water bryozoa. XV. Pectinatella gelatinosa Oka. Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Univ., Ser. 4, 22: 29–33.Google Scholar
  27. Vorstman, A. 1928. Some freshwater bryozoa from West Java. Treubia 10: 1–14.Google Scholar
  28. Wood. T. & B. Backus, 1992. Differentiation of North American and European forms of Fredericella sultana (Blumenbach) (Ectoprocta: Phylactolaemata). Hydrobiologia 237: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wood, T. & T. Marsh. 1995. The sinking floatoblasts of Lophopodella carteri. In Gordon, D. et al. (eds), Bryozoans in Space and Time. Nat. Inst. Water and Atm. Sci., Wellington: 383–389.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy S. Wood
    • 1
  • Beth Okamura
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesWright State UniversityDaytonU.S.A. Tel
  2. 2.School of Animal and Microbial SciencesThe University of ReadingReadingU.K

Personalised recommendations