, Volume 104, Issue 2, pp 133–142 | Cite as

HIV as the cause of AIDS and associated diseases

  • Pascale Galéa
  • Jean-Claude Chermann


This brief article is in response to the previous article by Peter Duesberg and David Rasnick titled ‘The AIDS Dilemma: Drug Diseases Blamed on a Passenger Virus.’ We focus our response on thirteen specific issues raised by Duesberg and Rasnick.


Previous Article Associate Disease Drug Disease Passenger Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiken, C., J. Konner, N.R. Landan, M.E. Lenburg & D. Trono, 1994. Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domain. Cell 76: 853–864.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameisen, J.C. & A. Capron. 1991. T cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: the programmed cell death hypothesis. Immunol. Today 4: 102.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, S., D.C. Shugars, R. Swanstrom & J.V. Garcia, 1993. Nef from primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suppresses surface CD4 expression in human and mouse T-cells. J. Virol. 67: 4923–4931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andes, W.A., S.R. Rangan & K.M. Wulff, 1989. Exposure of heterosexuals to human immunodeficiency virus and viremia: evidence for continuing risks in spouses of hemophiliac. Sex. Transm. Dis. 16: 68–073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arthur, L.O., J.W. Bess, J.W. Sowder, R.C. Sowder, R.E. Benveniste, D.L. Mann, J.C. Chermann & L.E. Henderson. 1992. Cellular proteins bound to immunodeficiency viruses: implications for pathogenesis and vaccines. Science 258: 1935–1938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkins, M.C., E.M. Carlin, V.C. Emery, P.D. Griffiths & F. Boag, 1996. Fluctuations of HIV load in semen of HIV-positive patients with newly acquired sexually transmitted disease. BMJ 313: 341–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banda, N.K., J. Bernier, D.K. Kurahara, R. Kurrle, N. Haigwood, R.P. Sekaly & T.H. Finkel, 1992. Crosslinking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation-induced apoptosis. J. Exp. Med. 176: 1099–1106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barré-Sinoussi, F., J.C. Chermann, F. Rey, M.T. Nugeyre, S. Chamaret, J. Gruest, C. Dauguet, C. Axler-Blin, F. Brun-Vezinet, C. Rouzioux, W. Rozenbaum & L. Montagnier, 1983. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220: 868–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Benson, R.E., A. Sanfridson, J.S. Ottinger, C. Doyle & B.R. Cullen, 1993. Downregulation of cell surface CD4 expression by simian immunodeficiency virus nef prevents viral super infection. J. Exp. Med. 77: 1561–1566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borrow, P., H. Lewicki, B.H. Hahn, M.G. Shaw & M.B.A. Oldstone, 1994. Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J. Virol. 68: 6103–6110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bréchard, N., P. Galéa, F. Silvy, M. Amram & J.C. Chermann, 1997a. HIV detection in seropositive male ejaculation at different times. Contracept. Fertil. Sex. 25: 725–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bréchard, N., P. Galéa, F. Silvy, M. Amram & J.C. Chermann, 1997b. Study of HIV localization in sperm. Contracept. Fertil. Sex. 25: 389–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Calenda, V., G. Sebahoun & J.C. Chermann, 1992a. Modulation of normal human erythropoietic progenitor cells in long term liquid cultures after HIV infection. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 8: 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calenda, V., C. Tamalet & J.C. Chermann, 1992b. Transient stimulation of granalopoiesis and drastic inhibition of erythropoiesis in HIV-2 infected long term liquid bone marrow cultures. J. Acquir. Immune Defic Syndr. 5: 1148–1157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Calenda, V. & J.C. Chermann, 1992c. The effects of HIV on hematopoiesis. Eur. J. Haematol. 48: 181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calenda, V. & J.C. Chermann, 1992d. In vitro severe inhibition of erythropoiesis and transient stimulation of granulopoiesis after bone marrow infection with eight different isolates of HIV2. AIDS 6: 943–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Calenda, V., P. Graber, J.F. Delamarter & J.C. Chermann, 1994. Involvement of HIV nef protein in abnormal hematopoiesis in AIDS: in vitro study on bone marrow progenitor cells. Eur. J. Haematol. 52: 103–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calenda, V. & J.C. Chermann, 1995. HIV tat protein potentiates in vitro granulomonocytic progenitor cell growth. Eur. J. Haematol. 54: 180–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carmichael, A., X. Jin, P. Sissons & L. Borysiewicz, 1993. Quantitative analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response at different stages of HIV-1 infection: differential CTL responses to HIV-1 and Epstein-Barr virus in late disease. J. Exp. Med. 177: 249–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: trends in AIDS incidence-United States, 1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46: 861–867.Google Scholar
  21. Chermann, J.C., 1988. HIV: the ethiologic agent of AIDS and associated diseases. Biomed. & Pharmacother. 42: 3–4Google Scholar
  22. Chermann, J.C., 1990. HIV-associated diseases: acute and regressive encephalopathy of a seropositive man. Res. Virol. 141: 137–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chermann, J.C., 1991. Promising Directions in HIV Research. PAAC Notes 3: 41–43Google Scholar
  24. Chermann, J.C., J. Fantini, V. Calenda, F. Silvy & I. Hirsch, 1992. Immunopathogenesis of AIDS and associated diseases involves HIV variants and target cells interactions. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 8: 711–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Corbeil, J. & D.D. Richman, 1995. Productive infection and subsequent interaction of CD4-gp120 at the cellular membrane is required for HIV-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. J. Gen. Virol. 76: 681–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cooper, D.A., B. Tindall, E.J. Wilson, A.A. Imrie & R. Penny, 1988. Characterization of T lymphocyte responses during primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J. Inf. Dis. 157: 889–896.Google Scholar
  27. Curtain, C.C., M.G. Lowe, C.K. Arunagiri, P.W. Mobley, I.G. Macreadie & A.A. Azad, 1997. Cytotoxic activity of the aminoterminal region of HIV type 1 nef protein. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 13: 1213–1220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Darby, S.C., D.W. Ewart, P.L.F. Giangrande, P.J. Dolin, R.J.D. Spooner & C.R. Rizza, 1995. Mortality before and after HIV infection in the complete UK population of haemophiliacs. Nature 377: 79–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. De Mareuil, J., B. Brichacek, D. Salaun, J.C. Chermann & I. Hirsch, 1992. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag gene product p18 is responsible for enhanced fusogenicity and host range tropism of the highly cytopathic HIV-1-NDK strain. J. Virol. 66: 6797–6801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. De Mareuil, J., D. Salaun, J.C. Chermann & I. Hirsch, 1995. Fusogenic determinants of highly cytopathic subtype D Zairian isolate HIV-1-NDK. Virology 209: 649–653.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Diamond, D.C., B.P. Sleckman, T. Gregory, L.A. Lasky, J.L. Greenstein & S.J. Burakoff, 1988. Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120. J. Immunol. 141: 3715–3717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellrodt, A., F. Barré-Sinoussi, P. Le Bras, M.T. Nugeyre, L. Palazzo, F. Rey, F. Brun-Vézinet, C. Rouzioux, P. Segond, R. Caquet, L. Montagnier & J.C. Chermann, 1984. Isolation of a new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (LAV) from a married couple of Zairians, one with AIDs, the other with prodromes. Lancet 1: 1383–1385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS. HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe. AIDS cases reported by 30 June 1997, 1997, Quarterly report 54.Google Scholar
  34. Evans, J.A., K.J. Pasi, M.D. Williams & F.G.H. Hill, 1991. Consistently normal CD4+, CD8+ levels in haemophilic boys only treated with a virally safe factor VIII concentrate (BPL 8Y). British J. Haematol. 79: 457–461.Google Scholar
  35. Fantini, J., N. Yahi & J.C. Chermann, 1991a. Human immunodeficiency virus can infect the apical and basolateral surfaces of human colonic epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 9297–9301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fantini, J., S. Baghdiguian, N. Yahi & J.C. Chermann, 1991b. Selected human immunodeficiency virus replicates preferentially through the basolateral surface on human colon epithelial cells. Virology 185: 904–907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fantini, J., N. Yahi, S. Baghdiguian & J.C. Chermann, 1992. Human colon epithelial cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) show an impaired differentiation and an altered secretion. J. Virol. 66: 580–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Feorino, M.P., V.S. Kalyanaraman, H.W. Haverkos, C.D. Cadradilla, D.T. Warfield, H.W. Jaffe, A.K. Harrison, D. Goldringer, M.S. Gottlieb, J.C. Chermann, F. Barré-Sinoussi, T.J. Spira, J.S. McDougal, J.W. Curran, L. Montagnier, F.S. Murphy & D.P. Francis, 1984. Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) infection of a blood donor-recipient pair with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Science 225: 69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Francis, D., P. Feorino, R. Broderson, H. McClure, J. Getchell, C. McGrath, B. Swenson, S. McDougal, E. Palmer, A. Harrison, F. Barré-Sinoussi, J.C. Chermann, L. Montagnier, J. Curran, C. Cabradilla & S. Kalyanaraman, 1984. Infection of chimpanzees with Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus. Lancet 11: 1276–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fultz, P.N., H.M. McClure, R.B. Swenson, C.R. McGrath, A. Brodie, J.P. Getchell, F.C. Jensen, D.C. Anderson, J.R. Broderson & D.P. Francis, 1986. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus: a potential model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Virol. 58: 116–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fultz, P.N., A. Srinivasan, C.R. Greene, D. Butler, R.B. Swenson & H.M. McClure, 1987. Superinfection of a chimpanzee with a second strain of human immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol. 61: 4026–4029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fultz, P.N., R.I. Siegel, A. Brodie, A.C. Mawle, R.B. Stricker, R.B. Swenson, D.C. Anderson & H.M. McClure, 1991. Prolonged CD4+ lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in a chimpanzee persistently infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 441–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gail, M.H., W.Y. Tan, D. Pee & J.J. Goedert, 2997. Survival after AIDS diagnosis in a cohort of hemophilia patients. J. Acquir. Immune Defic Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 15: 363–369.Google Scholar
  44. Galéa, P., C. Le Contel & J.C. Chermann. 1996. Identification of a biological marker of resistance to AIDS progression. Cell. Pharmacol. Aids Science 3: 311–316.Google Scholar
  45. Galéa, P., C. Le Contel, C. Coutton & J.C. Chermann, 1997b. Rationale for an HIV vaccine using cellular antigens. International Meeting on HIV and Immunoregulation. Porthmadog, North Wales. Oral Presentation, September 1997.Google Scholar
  46. Galéa, P., C. Le Contel & J.C. Chermann, 1997c. Rationale for an HIV vaccine using cellular antigens. Second Annual Meeting of the Institute of Human Virology. Baltimore, USA. Oral Presentation, September 1997.Google Scholar
  47. Gendelman, H.E., J.M. Orenstein, L.M. Baca, B. Weiser, H. Burger, D.C. Kalter & M.S. Meltzer, 1989. The macrophage in the persistence and pathogenesis of HIV infection, AIDS 3: 475–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Godard, C., H. Serriès, C. Fulachier & J.C. Chermann J.C. 1997. Apoptosis of CD4+ T cells induced after contact with HIV-1 infected or non infected macrophages. Res. Virol. 148: 383–396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Goldsmith, M.A., M.T. Warmerdam, R. E. Atchinson, M.D. Miller & W.C. Greene, 1995. Dissociation of the CD4 downregulation and viral infectivity enhancement functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef. J. Virol. 69: 4112–4121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Goudsmit, J., 1995. The role of viral diversity in HIV pathogenesis. J. Acquir. Immune Defic Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 10: S15–S19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gout, O., B. Rouquette, E. Tournier-Lasserve, F. Barré-Sinoussi, O. Lyon-Caen & J.C. Chermann, 1988. Acute and regressive encephalopathy coincident with transient isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from cerebrospinal fluid of a seropositive man. Biomed. Pharmacother. 42: 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haimovici, F., K.H. Mayer & D.J. Anderson, 1997. Quantitation of HIV-1-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies in human genital tract secretions. J. Acquir. Immune Defic Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 15: 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Henin, Y., V. Marcchal, F. Barré-Sinoussi, J.C. Chermann & J.J. Morgenthaler, 1988. Inactivation and partition of human immunodeficiency virus during Kistler and Nitschmann fractionation of human blood plasma. Vox Sang. 54: 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hirsch, I., B. Spire, Y. Tsunetsugu-Yokota, C. Neuvet, J. Sire & J.C. Chermann, 1990. Differences in cytopathogenicity of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) are not determined by long terminal repeats (LTR). Virology 177: 759–763.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hirsch, I., D. Salaun, B. Brichacek & J.C. Chermann, 1992. HIV-1 cytopathogenicity — genetic difference between direct cytotoxic and fusogenic effect. Virology 186: 647–654.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Iwatani, Y., S.K. Song, L. Wang, J. Planas, H. Sakai, A. Ishimoto & M.W. Cloyd, 1997. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu modifies viral cytopathic effect through augmented virus release. J. Gen. Virol. 78: 841–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnson, B.K., G.A. Stone, M.S. Dodee, D.M. Asher, D.C. Cajdusek & C.J. Gibbs Jr, 1993. Long term observations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected chimpanzees. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 9: 375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kalter, D.C., M. Nakamura, J.A. Turpin, L.M. Baca, C. Diefenbach, P. Ralph, H.E. Gendelman & M.S. Meltzer, 1991. Enhanced HIV replication in MCSF-treated monocytes. J. Immunol. 146: 298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirchhoff, F., T.C. Greenough, D.B. Brettler, J.L. Sullivan & R.C. Desrosiers, 1995. Absence of intact nef sequences in a long-term survivor with nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 228–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Klein, M.R., C.A. van Baalen, A.M. Holwerda et al., 1995. Kinetics of gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses during the clinical course of HIV-1 infection: a longitudinal analysis of rapid progressors and long-term asymptomatics. J. Exp. Med. 181: 1365–1372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Koenig, S., H.E. Gendelman, J.M. Orenstein, M.C. Dal Canto, G.M. Pezeshkpour, M. Yngbluth, F. Janotta, A. Aksamit, M.A. Martin & A.S. Fauci, 1986. Detection of AIDS virus in macrophages in brain tissue from AIDS patients with encephalopathy. Science 233: 1089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Krieger, J.N., R.W. Coombs, A.C. Collier et al., 1995. Intermittent shedding of human immunodeficiency virus in semen: implications for sexual transmission. J. Urol. 154: 1035–1040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Le Contel, C., P. Galéa, F. Silvy, I. Hirsch & J.C. Chermann, 1996. Identification of the β2m-derived epitope responsible for neutralization of HIV isolates. Cell. Pharmacol. Aids Science 3: 68–73.Google Scholar
  64. Lu, Y.Y., Y. Koga, K. Tanaka, M. Sasaki, G. Kimura & K. Nomoto, 1994. Apoptosis induced in CD4+ cells expressing gp160 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 68: 390–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lunardi-Iskandar, Y., M.T. Nugeyre, V. Georgoulias, F. Barré-Sinoussi, C. Jasmin & J.C. Chermann, 1989. Replication of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 and impaired differentiation of T cells after in vitro infection of bone marrow immature T cells. J. Clin. Invest. 83: 610–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mano, H., & J.C. Chermann, 1991a. Replication of human immun-odeficiency virus type 1 in primary cultured placental cells. Res. Virol. 142: 95–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mano, H. & J.C. Chermann, 1991b. Fetal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of different organs in the second trimester. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7: 83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mariani, R. & J. Skowronski., 1993. CD4 down-regulation by nef allcles isolated from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 5549–5553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mayaux, M.J., M. Burgard M., J.P. Teglas, J. Cottalorda, A. Krivine, F. Simon, J. Puel, C. Tamalet, D. Dormont, B. Masquelier, A. Doussin, C. Rouzioux & S. Blanche, 1996. Neonatal characteristics in rapidly progressive perinatally acquired HIV-1 disease. JAMA 275: 606–610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayaux, M.J., E. Dussaix, J. Isopet, C. Rekacewicz, L. Mandelbrot, N. Ciraru-Vigneron, M.C. Allemon, V. Chambrin, C. Katlama, J.F. Delfraissy & J. Puel, 1997. Maternal virus load during pregnancy and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the french perinatal cohort studies. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 172–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McClure, H., B. Swenson, F. King, J.C. Chermann, F. Barré-Sinoussi, L. Montagnier, J. Eichberg, C. Saxinger, R. Gallo., H. Alter, H. Masur, A. Macher, C. Lane & A. Fauci, 1984. Experimental infection of chimpanzees with Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus. J. Am. Med. Ass. 252: 995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mediema, F., C. Meyaard, M. Koot, M.R. Klein, M.T. Roos, M. Groenink, R.A. Fouchier & Van't Wout, 1994. Changing virushost interactions in the course of HIV-1 infection. Immunol. Rev. 140: 35–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Melbye, E., R. J. Biggar, J.C. Chermann, L. Montagnier, S. Stenbjerg & P. Ebbesen, 1984. High prevalence of lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) in European haemophiliacs. Lancet II: 40–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mellors, J.W., A. Munoz, J.V. Giorgi, J.B. Margolick, C.J. Tassoni, P. Gupta, L.A. Kingsley, J.A. Todd, A.J. Saah., R. Detels, J.P. Phair & C.R. Rinaldo Jr., 1997. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 126: 946–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Meltzer, M.S., D.R. Skillman, D.L. Hoover, B.D. Hanson, J.A. Turpin, D.C. Kalter & H.E. Gendelman, 1990. HIV and the immune system. Immunol. Today 11: 217–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Montagnier, L., J.C. Chermann, F. Barré-Sinoussi, S. Chamaret, J. Gruest, M.T. Nugeyre, F. Rey, C. Dauguet, C. Axler-Blin, F. Vezinet-Brun, C. Rouzioux, G.A. Saimot, W. Rozenbaum, J.C. Gluckman, D. Klatzmann, E. Vilmer, C. Griscelli, C. Foyer-Gazengel. & J.B. Brunet, 1984. A new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus: characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes. Cold Spring Harbor Publication — Meeting on ‘Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma viruses’ pp. 363–379.Google Scholar
  77. Musey, L., J. Hughes, T. Schacker, T. Shea & L. Corey, 1997. Cytotoxic-T-cell responses, viral load, and disease progression in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1267–1274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nardelli, B., C.J. Gonzalez, M. Schechter & F.T. Valentine, 1995. CD4+ blood lymphocytes are rapidly killed in vitro by contact with autologous human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 7312–7316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nicolosi, A., M.L. Correa Leite, M. Musicco, G. Gavazzeni & A. Lazzarin, 1994. The efficiency of male-to-female sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus: a study of 730 stable couples. Italian Study Group on HIV heterosexual transmission. Epidemiology 5: 570–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Noraz, N., J. Gozlan, J. Corbeil, T. Brunner & S.A. Spector, 1997. HIV-induced apoptosis of activated primary CD4+ T lymphocytes is not mediated by Fas-Fas ligand. AIDS 11: 1671–1680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Novembre, F.J., m Saucier, D.C. Anderson, S.A. Klumpp, S.P. O'Neil, C.R. Brown II, C.E. Hart, P.C. Guenthner, R.B. Swenson & H.M. McClure, 1997. Development of AIDS in a chimpanzee infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 71: 4086–4091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. O'Brien, T.R., M.P. Bush, E. Donegan, J.W. Ward, L. Wong, S.M. Samson, H.A. Perkins, R. Altman, R.L. Stoneburner & S.D. Holmberg, 1994. Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from transfusion recipients to their sex partner. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7: 705–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. O'Brien, T.R., W.A. Blattner, D. Waters, M.E. Eyster, M.W. Hilgartner, A.R. Cohen, N. Luban, A. Hatzakis, L.M. P.S. Aledort Rosenberg, W.J. Miley, B.L. Kroner & J.J. Goedert, 1996. Serum HIV-1 RNA levels and time to development of AIDS in the multicenter hemophilia cohort study. JAMA 276: 105–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pitchenik, A.E., R.D. Shafron, R.M. Glasser & T.J. Spira, 1984. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the wife of a hemophiliac. Ann. Intern. Med. 100: 62–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rey, F., G. Donker, I. Hirsch & J.C. Chermann, 1991. Productive infection of CD4+ cells by selected HIV strains is not inhibited by an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies. Virology 181: 165–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rinaldo, C.R., X.L. Huang, Z.F. Fan et al., 1995. High levels of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity and low viral load are associated with lack of disease in HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors. J. Virol. 69: 5838–5842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rossio, J.L., J. Bess Jr, L.E. Henderson, P. Cresswell & L.O. Arthur, 1995. HLA class II on HIV particles is functional in superantigen presentation to human T cells: implications for HIV pathogenesis. AIDS Res Hum. Retroviruses 11: 1433–1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roy, S. & M.A. Wainberg, 1988. Role of the mononuclear phagocyte system in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J. Leukocyte Biol. 43: 91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Samuelsson, A., C. Broström, N. van Dijk, A. Sönnerborg & F. Chiodi, 1997. Apoptosis of CD4+ and CD19+ cells during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection — Correlation with clinical progression, viral load, and loss of humoral immunity. Virology 238: 180–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sanchez, G., X. Xu, J.C. Chermann & I. Hirsch, 1997. Accumulation of defective viral genomes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals. J. Virol. 71: 2233–2240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schmidtmayerova, H., C. Bolmont, S. Baghdiguian, I. Hirsch & J.C. Chermann, 1992. Distinctive pattern of infection and replication of HIV1 strains in blood derived macrophages. Virology 190: 124–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schmidtmayerova, H., O. Gayet, N. Guettari, C. Bolmont, I. Hirsch & J.C. Chermann, 1993. Characterization of HIV-1 PAR, a macrophage tropic strain: cell tropism virus/cell entry and nuclcotide sequence of the envelope glycoprotein. Res. Virol. 144: 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Smiley, M.L., G.C. White II, P. Becherer, G. Macik, T.J. Matthews, K.J. Weinhold, C. McMillan & D. Bolognesi, 1988. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to sexual partners of hemophiliacs. Am. J. Hematol. 28: 27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwartz, O., Y. Rivière, J.M. Yeard & O. Danos, 1993. Reduced cell surface expression of processed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the presence of nef. J. Virol. 67: 3274–3280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Smid, W.M., J. van der Meer & M.R. Halie, 1995. Changes in T4/T8 ratio over a ten years period related to the factor VIII concentrates used in a group of HIV negative haemophiliacs. Thrombosis & Haemostasis 73: 552–553.Google Scholar
  96. Spire, B., F. Barré-Sinoussi, L. Montagnier & J.C. Chermann, 1984. Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by chemical disinfectants. Lancet 2: 899–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Spire, B., D. Dormont, F. Barré-Sinoussi, L. Montagnier & J.C. Chermann, 1985. Inactivation of lymphadenopathy associated virus by heat, gamma rays and ultraviolet light. Lancet 1: 188–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Spire, B., J. Sire, V. Zachar, F. Rey, F. Barré-Sinoussi, F. Galibert, A. Hampe & J.C. Chermann, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of the HIV-1-NDK: a highly cytopathic strain. Gene 81: 275–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Spire, B., I. Hirsch, C. Neuveut, J. Sire & J.C. Chermann, 1990. The env gene variability is not directly related to the high cytopathogenicity of an HIV1 variant. Virology 177: 756–758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Vernazza, P.L., J.J. Eron, M.S. Cohen, C.M. van der Horst, L. Troiani & S.A. Fiscus, 1994. Detection and biologic characterization of infections HIV-1 in semen of seropositive men. AIDS 8: 1325–1329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vilmer, E., F. Barré-Sinoussi, C. Rouzioux, C. Gazengel, F. Vezinet-Brun, C. Dauguet, A. Fischer, P. Magnine, J.C. Chermann, C. Griscelli & L. Montagnier, 1984, Isolation of a new lymphotropic retrovirus in two hemophilia B siblings, one presenting with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet 1: 753–757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vicenzi, E., P. Bagnarelli, E. Santagostino, S. Ghezzi, M. Alfano, M.S. Sinnone, G. Fabio, L. Turchetto, G. Moretti, A. Lazzarin, A. Mantovani, P.M. Mannucci, M. Clementi, A. Gringeri & G. Poli, 1997. Hemophilia and nonprogressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Blood 89: 191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Von Briesen, H., W.B. Becker, K. Henco, E.B. Helm, H.R. Gelderblom, H.D. Brede & H. Rübsamen-Waigmann, 1987. Multiple simultancous variants in a patient demonstrated by molecular cloning. J. Med. Virol. 23: 51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wu, M.X., J.F. Daley, R.A. Rasmussen & S.F. Schlossman, 1995. Monocytes are required to prime peripheral blood T cells to undergo apoptosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 1525–1529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yahi, N., S. Baghdiguian, H. Moreau & J. Fantini, 1992a. Galactosyl ceramide (or a closely related molecule) is the receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 on human colon epithelial HT29 cells. J. Virol. 66: 4848–4854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Yahi, N., S. Baghdiguian, C. Bolmont & J. Fantini, 1992b. Replication and apical budding of HIV-1 in mucous-secreting colonic epithelial cells. J. Acquir Immune Def. 5: 993–1000.Google Scholar
  107. Yahi, N., J. Fantini & J.C. Chermann, 1992c. Infection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 through the luminal and serosal sides of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells. AIDS 6: 335–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Yahi, N., J. Fantini & J.C. Chermann, 1992d. Characterization of the env gene products of a highly cytopathic strain of HIV shows a specific pattern of glycosylation and a deletion in the proteic moiety of the extracellular envelope glycoprotein. Arch. Virol. 125: 287–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yang, O.O. & B.D. Walker, 1997. CD8+ cells in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pathogenesis: cytolytic and noncytolytic inhibition of viral replication. Adv. Immunol. 66: 273–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zachar, V., B. Spire, I. Hirsch, J.C. Chermann & P. Ebbesen, 1991. Human transformed trophoblast-derived cell lines lacking CD4 receptor exhibit restricted permissiveness to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 65: 2102–2107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zachar, V., B. Spire, N. Norskoy-Lauritsen, J.C. Chermann & P. Ebbesen, 1991a. Cultured trophoblastic choriocarninoma cells differentially express HIV-1 and cloned provirus. AIDS 5: 457–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Zachar, V., N. Norskoy-Lauritsen, C. Juhl, B. Spire, J.C. Chermann & P. Ebbesen, 1991b. Susceptibility of culture human trophoblast to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Gen. Virol., 72: 1253–1260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ziza, J.M., F. Brun-Vezinet, A. Venet, C.H. Rouzioux, J. Traversat, B. Israel-Biet, F. Barré-Sinoussi, J.C. Chermann & P. Godeau, 1985. Lymphodenopathy-associated virus isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in AIDS-related complex with lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 183.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pascale Galéa
    • 1
  • Jean-Claude Chermann
    • 1
  1. 1.INSERM Unit 322, Retroviruses and Associated Diseases Parc Scientifique et Technologique de LuminyMarseille CédexFrance

Personalised recommendations