, Volume 359, Issue 1–3, pp 1–12 | Cite as

Distribution, diversity and conservation of Anostraca (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in southern Africa

  • M.L. Hamer
  • L. Brendonck


Southern Africa is defined here as Africa south of the Zambezi and Kunene Rivers. Here, annual average rainfall, rainfall season, and effective temperature are climatic factors which influence anostracan distribution. The type of temporary pool also appears to have some effect on distribution. Areas of high species richness are not confined to any particular climatic region and such areas occur in arid, montane and subtropical regions of southern Africa. Forty-six anostracan species have been recorded from the subcontinent and 80% of these are endemic. IUCN Red Data assessment of species revealed that two species can be considered 'Critically Endangered', while a further four are 'Endangered', and three are 'Vulnerable'. Many parts of southern Africa have been inadequately sampled but in South Africa, where the anostracans are relatively well known, temporary pool inhabitants are threatened mainly by agriculture, urbanization, pollution and pesticides.

distribution categories climate barriers species evaluations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banarescu, P., 1990. Zoogeography of freshwaters. General distribution of freshwater animals. Vol. 1. Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden: 511 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barnard, K.H., 1924. Contributions to a knowledge of the fauna of South-West Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 20: 213–228.Google Scholar
  3. Barnard, K.H., 1929. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. A revision of the South African Branchiopoda (Phyllopoda). Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 29: 181–272.Google Scholar
  4. Barnard, K.H., 1935. Scientific results of the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, March-September, 1930. Crustacea. Ann. Transv. Mus. 16: 481–492.Google Scholar
  5. Belk, D., 1977. Zoogeography of the Arizona fairy shrimps (Crustacea: Anostraca). J. Ariz. Acad. Sci. 12: 70–75.Google Scholar
  6. Belk, D., 1991. Why only one of two common Central Texas Anostraca atop Enchanted Rock? Hydrobiologia 212: 83–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brehm, V., 1958. Crustacea. Phyllopoda und Copepoda Calanoida. In B. Hanström, P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds), South African Animal Life, Results of the Lund University Expedition, 1950–1951. Almquist & Wiksell, Uppsala. 5: 10–39.Google Scholar
  8. Brendonck, L., 1995. A new branchipodid genus and species (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South Africa. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 115: 359–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brtek, J. & A. Thiéry, 1995. The geographic distribution of the European branchiopods (Anostraca, Notostraca, Spinicaudata, Laevicaudata). Hydrobiologia 298: 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daday, E., 1908. Diagnoses praecursoriae specierum aliquot novarum e familia Branchipodidae. Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. 7: 137–150.Google Scholar
  11. Daday, E., 1910. Monographie systematique des phyllopodes Anostraces. Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 9, 11: 91–489.Google Scholar
  12. Gonzalez, R.J., J. Drazen, S. Hathaway, B. Bauer & M. Simovich 1996. Physiological correlates of water chemistry requirements in fairy shrimp (Anostraca) from southern California. J. Crust. Biol. 16: 315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamer, M.L. & C.C. Appleton, 1993. Four new Streptocephalus (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) species from southeastern Africa. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 103: 167–181.Google Scholar
  14. Hamer, M.L. & C.C. Appleton, 1996. The genus Branchipodopsis (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) in southern Africa. Morphology, distribution, relationships and the description of five new species. Ann. s. afr. Mus. 104: 311–377.Google Scholar
  15. Hamer, M.L. & L. Brendonck, 1995. Pumilibranchipus deserti, a new genus and species of branchipodid (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from Namibia. Ann. Natal Mus. 36: 1–7.Google Scholar
  16. Hamer, M., L. Brendonck, C.C. Appleton & A. Coomans, 1994. A review of African Streptocephalidae (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) Part 1: Africa south of the Zambezi and Kunene Rivers. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 99: 279–311.Google Scholar
  17. Hamer, M.L. & N.A. Rayner, 1996. A note on the unusual crustacean community of a temporary pool in the northern Cape. S. afr. J. aquat. Sci. 22(1/2): 100–104.Google Scholar
  18. Hathaway, S.A.& M.A. Simovich, 1996. Factors affecting the distribution of two southern Californian anostracans (Branchiopoda), Branchinecta sandiegonensisand Streptocephalus woottoniJ. Crust. Biol. 16: 669–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Horne, F., 1967. Effects of physico-chemical factors on the distribution and occurrence of some southeastern Wyoming phyllopods. Ecology 48: 472–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutchinson, G.E., G.E. Pickford & J.F.M. Schuurman, 1932. A contribution to the hydrobiology of pans and other inland waters of South Africa. Arch. Hydrobiol. 24: 1–154.Google Scholar
  21. IUCN Species Survival Commission, 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. 21 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Maeda-Martinez, A.M., D. Belk, H. Obregón-Barboza & H. Dumont, 1995. Diagnosis and phylogeny of the NewWorld Streptocephalidae (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Hydrobiologia 298: 15–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martens, K. & F. de Moor. 1995, The fate of the Rhino Ridge pool at Thomas Baines Nature Reserve: a cautionary tale for nature conservationists. S. Afr. J. Sci. 91: 385–387.Google Scholar
  24. Sars, G.O., 1898. On some South African phyllopods raised from dried mud. Arch. Math. Naturv. B 20: 1–43.Google Scholar
  25. Sars, G.O., 1899. Additional notes on some South African Phyllopoda. Arch. Math. Naturv. B 21: 1–29.Google Scholar
  26. Sars, G.O., 1905. On two apparently new Phyllopoda from South Africa. Arch. Math. Naturv. B 27: 1–16.Google Scholar
  27. Schultze, R.E. & O.S McGee, 1978. Climatic indicies and classifications in relation to the biogeography of southern Africa. In M.J.A. Werger (ed), Biogeography and Ecology of Southern Africa. Dr W.Junk, The Hague: 19–52.Google Scholar
  28. Stone, A.W., 1988. Climate and weather. In F.W. Gess & M.N. Bruton (eds), A Field Guide to the Eastern Cape Coast. Grahamstown Centre of the Wildlife Society of Southern Africa: 19–30.Google Scholar
  29. Stuckenberg, B., 1969. Effective temperature as an ecological factor in Southern Africa. Zool. Afr. 4: 145–197.Google Scholar
  30. WCMC, 1992. Development of a National Biodiversity Index: a discussion paper prepared by the WCMC. Report of the WCMC, 15 September, 1992.Google Scholar
  31. Walton, C. (ed.), 1984. Readers Digest Atlas of Southern Africa. Readers Digest Association SA (pty) Ltd, Cape Town. 256 pp.Google Scholar
  32. Williams, W.D. & J.R. Busby, 1991. The geographical distribution of Triops australiensis(Crustacea: Notostraca) in Australia: a biogeoclimatic analysis. Hydrobiologia 212: 235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.L. Hamer
    • 1
  • L. Brendonck
    • 2
  1. 1.Natal MuseumKwaZulu-NatalSouth Africa
  2. 2.Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Freshwater BiologyBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations