Among-populational genetic differentiation in the cyclical parthenogen Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Anomopoda) and its relation to geographic distance and clonal diversity
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Using allozyme data based on four polymorphic enzymeloci, we present an analysis of geneticdifferentiation among eight Daphnia magnapopulations, separated by less than 100 m to more than500 km from each other. In spite of the large range ofgeographic distances, there was only a slight tendencyfor an increase in genetic differentiation withincreasing geographic distance between populations,and the relation was not significant. This was mainlydue to the fact that neighbouring populations werealready highly genetically differentiated. Our resultssuggest that in populations in which only a fewabundant clones are present after a period of strongclonal selection, among-populational geneticdifferentiation as revealed by allozyme markers isinflated as a result of stochasticity involving chanceassociations of alleles with specific abundantgenotypes. Indices quantifying genetic differentiationwere much higher among populations with a low clonaldiversity than among populations with a high clonaldiversity.
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