Compartmentalization and transport in β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis by filamentous fungi
- Cite this article as:
- van de Kamp, M., Driessen, A.J. & Konings, W.N. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1999) 75: 41. doi:10.1023/A:1001775932202
- 169 Downloads
A proper description of the biosynthesis of fungal β-lactam antibiotics requires detailed knowledge of the cell biology of the producing organisms. This involves a delineation of the compartmentalization of the biosynthetic pathways, and of the consequential transport steps across the cell-boundary plasma membrane and across organellar membranes. Of the enzymes of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus nidulans, δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) and isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) probably have a cytosolic location. Acyl-coenzyme A:isopenicillin N acyltransferase (IAT) is located in microbodies. Of the two enzymes that may be involved in activation of the side chain, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) is located in the cytosol, and phenylacetyl-coenzyme A ligase (PCL) is probably located in the microbody. All enzymes of the cephalosporin biosynthesis pathway in Cephalosporium acremonium probably have a cytosolic location. The vacuole may play an ancillary role in the supply of precursor amino acids, and in the storage of intermediates. The distribution of precursors, intermediates, end- and side-products, the transport of nutrients, precursors, intermediates and products across the plasma membrane, and the transport of small solutes across organellar membranes, is discussed. The relevance of compartmentalization is considered against the background of recent biotechnological innovations of fungal β-lactam biosynthesis pathways.