Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 74, Issue 1–3, pp 89–97 | Cite as

Biotransformation of nitriles by rhodococci

  • Alan William Bunch
Article

Abstract

Rhodococci have been shown to be capable of a very wide range of biotransformations. Of these, the conversion of nitriles into amides or carboxylic acids has been studied in great detail because of the biotechnological potential of such activities. Initial investigations used relatively simple aliphatic nitriles. These studies were quickly followed by the examination of the regio- and stereoselective properties of the enzymes involved, which has revealed the potential synthetic utility of rhodococcal nitrile biotransforming enzymes. Physiological studies on rhodococci have shown the importance of growth medium design and bioreactor operation for the maximal conversion of nitriles. This in turn has resulted in some truly remarkable biotransformation activities being obtained, which have been successfully exploited for commercial organic syntheses (e.g. acrylamide production from acrylonitrile).

The two main types of enzyme involved in nitrile biotransformations by rhodococci are nitrile hydratases (amide synthesis) and nitrilases (carboxylic acid synthesis with no amide intermediate released). It is becoming clear that many rhodococci contain both activities and multiple forms of each enzyme, often induced in a complex way by nitrogen containing molecules. The genes for many nitrile-hydrolysing enzymes have been identified and sequenced. The crystal structure of one nitrile hydratase is now available and has revealed many interesting aspects of the enzyme structure in relationship to its catalytic activity and substrate selectivity.

nitriles nitrile hydratase nitrilase biotransformations 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan William Bunch
    • 1
  1. 1.Research School of BiosciencesThe University of KentCanterbury, KentUK

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