Skip to main content

Biology of the African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its incidence on wet-season rice in Nigeria

Abstract

The biology of the African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné was investigated in screenhouse and laboratory studies, and its incidence on cultivated wet-season rice was studied in farmers’ fields during the 2006 and 2007 rice-growing seasons at two localities in Nigeria. This insect is nocturnal, and mating takes place immediately after emergence. Both mated and unmated females lay eggs, with mated females laying on average 389 eggs each, and unmated females laying about 87 sterile eggs. The egg stage takes on average 2.5 days. Larval development takes 3.6, 3.3 and 3.0 days for the first, second and third instars, respectively, while the pre-pupal and pupal stages take 2.8 and 6.1 days, respectively. Adult females live for 48–78 h, while males live for 24–30 h. The life cycle of O. oryzivora is completed within 21–24 days under screenhouse conditions. The adult male is slender and about 3 mm long, while the female is more rounded with a 4 mm long body and a bright red abdomen. The insect produces unisexual progeny. Field incidence is low at the beginning of the rainy season, peaking with the peak in rainfall and humidity that concurs with the vegetative stage of the crop. The population of the midge declines as temperatures rise. In conclusion, prediction models may be developed based on weather parameters, to aid in forecasting the field incidence of O. oryzivora and its management strategies. Furthermore, it maybe possible to reduce the damage caused by O. oryzivora to rice crops by altering planting period and taking into account environmental factors.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Africa Rice Center (WARDA) (2005) Annual Report. Cotonou Benin.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Africa Rice Center (WARDA) (2007) Africa Rice Trends. Overview of recent developments in the sub-Saharan Africa rice sector, Africa Rice Center Brief. WARDA, Cotonou. 8 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Africa Rice Center (WARDA)/FAO/SAA (2008) In NERICA®: the New Rice for Africa - A Compendium (edited by E. A. Somado, R. G. Guei and S. O. Keya). FAO/Sasakawa/Africa association Africa Rice Center (WARDA), Cotonou/Rome/Tokyo. 2210 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Baskauf S. J. (2003) Factors influencing population dynamics of the southwest corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): a reassessment. Environmental Entomology 32, 915–928.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bonzi C. (1980) Wild host plants of the rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae W.M. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Upper Volta. Technical Newsletter West African Rice Development Association 2, 5–6.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Heinrichs E. A. and Barrion A. T. (2004) Rice Feeding Insects and Selected Natural Enemies in West Africa, Biology, Ecology Identification (edited by G. P. Hettel). International Rice research Institute. 237 pp.

  7. Huang C. K. (1957) Study on Pachydiplosis oryzae Wood-Mason in Fu-Chien province (in Chinese). East China Science Agricultural Journal 6, 293–304.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Imolehin E. D. and Ukwungwu M. N. (1992) Integrated pest management of rice in Nigeria. Paper presented at the IPM Task force meeting, 19–20 February 1992. West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake, Cote d’Ivoire.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Janssen A. and Sabelis M. W. (1992) Phytoseiid life-histories, local predator-prey dynamics, and strategies for control of tetranychid mites. Experimental Applied Acarology 14, 233–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kormawa P. M., Keya S. and Toure A. A. (2004) Rice research and production in Africa, Rice Outlook 2004, 29–30 June 2004, Marseille, France.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mohapatra S. (2006) Putting rice on the African agenda, Rice Today. Vol. 5. Publication of the International Rice Research Institute, Manila. 50 pp.

  12. Murua G., Molina-Ochoa J. and Coviella C. (2006) Population dynamics of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its parasitoids in Northwestern Argentina. The Florida Entomologist 89, 175–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Nacro S., Heinrichs E. and Dakouo D. (1996) Estimation of rice yield losses due to the African rice gall midge O. oryzivora Harris & Gagné. International Journal of Pest Management 42, 331–334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Nwilene F. E., Nwanze K. F. and Okhidievbie O. (2006) African Rice Gall Midge: Biology, Ecology and Control. Field Guide and Technical Manual. Africa Rice Centre, Cotonou. 18 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ogah E. O., Echezona B. C. and Umeh E.-D. N. (2005) Effects of N-fertilization and spacing on Africa rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne in a Sub-Humid area of Southeastern Nigeria. Agro-Science 4, 15–18.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ogah E. O., Nwilene F. E., Ukwungwu M. N., Omoloye A. A. and Agunbiade T. A. (2009) Population dynamics of the African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne (Dipt.: Cecidomyiidae) and its parasitoids in the forest and southern Guinea savanna zones of Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 29, 86–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ogah E. O., Umeh E.-D. N. and Oselebe H. O. (2006) Effect of time of transplanting and spacing on the incidence of African rice gall midge H and G in Abakaliki. Journal of Science of Agriculture, Food Technology and Environment 6, 110–113.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Omoloye A. A. (2006) Sex ratio bias in the Fl adult progeny of African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora H. & G. (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 130, 349–355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Omoloye A. A. and Fadina O. O. (2003) Introduction to Plant Protection. Distance Learning Centre Series. Distance Learning Centre, Ibadan. 125 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Omoloye A. A. and Vidal S. (2007) Abundance of 24-methylenecholesterol in traditional African rice as an indicator of resistance to the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris & Gagné. Entomological Science 10, 249–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Omoloye A. A., Odebiyi J. A., Williams C. T. and Singh B. N. (2002) Tolerance indicators and responses of donor rice cultivars to infestation of the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné. Journal of Agricultural Science 139, 335–340.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Sain M. and Kolade M. B. (1988) Production of unisex progeny in rice gall midge O. oryzae (Wood-Mason). Current Science 57, 860–861.

    Google Scholar 

  23. SAS Institute (2002-2003) The GLM Procedure SAS/STAT User’s Guide, version 6. SAS Institute, Cary North Carolina.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Singh B. N., Williams C. T., Ukwungwu M. N. and Maji T. A. (2004) Breeding for resistance to African rice gall midge, pp. 121–129. In New Approaches to Gall Midge Resistance in Rice. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Hyderabad, India. 22–24 November 1998 (edited by J. Bennett, J. S. Bentur, I. C. Pasalu and K. Krishnaiah). The International Rice Research Institute, Los Bahos.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ukwungwu M. N. and Misari S. M. (1997) Management of African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné in Nigeria. African Plant of Protection VI, 27–34.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Williams C. T., Okhidievbie O., Harris K. M. and Ukwungwu M. N. (1999) The host range, annual cycle and parasitoids of the African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in central and south east Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 89, 585–597.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Williams C. T., Ukwungwu M. N., Singh B. N. and Okhidievbie O. (2001) Assessment of host plant resistance in Oryza sativa to the African rice gall midge O. oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae), with a description of a new method for screening under artificial infestation. Journal of Applied Entomology 125, 341–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. O. Ogah.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ogah, E.O., Odebiyi, J.A., Ewete, F.K. et al. Biology of the African rice gall midge Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its incidence on wet-season rice in Nigeria. Int J Trop Insect Sci 30, 32–39 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758410000044

Download citation

Key words

  • Orseolia oryzivora
  • biology
  • rice
  • seasonal incidence
  • Nigeria