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Biotypes of Insect Pests of Agricultural Crops

Abstract

Biotypes refer to the infraspecific category of insect populations with similar genotypes for biological attributes. They have been encountered mostly in association with cultivation of resistant crop cultivars and in well-studied cases a gene-for-gene relationship between pest virulence and host plant resistance has been documented. To date, biotypes have been reported to occur in 36 crop pest species belonging to 17 arthropod families in six Orders. Almost 50% of these pest species with known biotypes are aphids. Knowledge of occurrence of insect biotypes is crucial to the success of crop improvement programmes aiming to incorporate pest resistance. Biotypes represent evolutionary transients in the process of speciation and develop through natural selection acting upon genetic variations within the pest populations. To slow down the process of biotype selection, crop cultivars with broad genetic bases are needed.

Résumé

Les biotypes caractérisent des catégories intraspécifiques de populations d’insectes qui ont des génotypes similaires pour des caractéristiques biologiques données. Ils se rencontrent le plus souvent en association avec la culture de variétés résistantes et dans des cas spécifiques bien étudiés une relation des gàne à gàne entre la virulence des ravageurs et la résistance de la plante hote ont été publiées. Jusqu’à ce jour, il a été décrit des biotypes pour 36 espèces de ravageurs appartenant à 17 familles d’arthropodes réparties dans 6 ordres. Près de 50% de ces espèces de ravageurs dont les biotypes sont connus sont des aphides. La connaissance de l’apparition de ces biotypes est cruciale pour le succès des programmes d’amélioration des cultures visant à incorporer la résistance aux ravageurs. Les biotypes représentent une étape de transition dans le processus de spéciation et se développe à travers la sélection naturelle qui agit sur les variations génétiques présentes dans les populations de ravageurs. Afin de réduire le processus de sélection des biotypes, des cultivars possédant des large bases génétiques pour la résistance sont nécéssaires.

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Correspondence to R. C. Saxena.

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Principal Research Scientist based at IRRI.

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Saxena, R.C., Barrion, A.A. Biotypes of Insect Pests of Agricultural Crops. Int J Trop Insect Sci 8, 453–458 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400022475

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Key Words

  • Insect biotypes
  • host plant resistance