Species composition of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Citrus Museum at the Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Kade, Ghana

  • Caroline Ngichop FobaEmail author
  • Kwame Afreh-Nuamah
  • Maxwell Kelvin Billah
  • Daniel Obeng-Ofori
Research Paper


To determine species composition of fruit flies on six cultivated varieties of citrus (Late Valencia orange, Pineapple orange, Ovaleto, Mediterranean sweet lemon, Satsuma tangerine and Ortanique orange), a study was conducted at the Agricultural Research Centre, Kade, Ghana. Improvised Lynfield baited traps (methyl eugenol (ME) and citrus juice (CJ)) and McPhail baited traps (trimedlure (TML)) were used. Ripe infested fruits from the selected varieties were also collected and incubated. Tephritid fruit fly species from trapping were identified as Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquillet), Ceratitis ditissima Munro, C. anonae Graham, C. capitata (Wiedemann), C. bremii Guerin-Meneville, Dacus bivittatus (Bigot), D. punctatifrons Karsch and Trirhithrum Bezzi. A total of 35,247 fruit flies were collected from the traps, with densities of 10.38, 1.00 and 0.27 flies/trap/day for ME, CJ and TML traps, respectively. All incubated fruit varieties showed co-habitation of three different species (C. ditissima, C. anonae and B. invadens) in each of them. In addition, one Dacus vertebratus was obtained from dropped Late Valencia fruits. Moreover, three individual Fopius caudatus (Szèpligeti) parasitoids were recorded from the infested incubated fruits. Ranking of the different fruit fly species from infested incubated host fruits was as follows: C. ditissima (476) > C. anonae (74) > B. invadens (71) and D. vertebratus (1). Competitive ability among the invasive flies in their process to infest the six citrus varieties was observed. These findings could serve as a useful starting point for the development of a reliable catalogue of host diversity, fruit fly species diversity and associated natural enemy records in Ghana.

Key words

species composition tephritid flies citrus varieties ranking Fopius caudatus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Afreh-Nuamah K. (1985) Important pests of citrus in the eastern region of Ghana. Legon Agricultural Research Bulletin 1, 27–43.Google Scholar
  2. Afreh-Nuamah K. (1999) Insect Pests of Tree Crops in Ghana: Identification, Damage and Control Measures. Buck Press Ltd, Accra. 65 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Afreh-Nuamah K. (2007) Pests of citrus species-Rutaceae, pp. 119–126. In Major Pests of Pood and Selected Fruit and Industrial Crops in West Africa (edited by D. Obeng-Ofori). City Printers Ltd, Accra, Ghana.Google Scholar
  4. Akotsen-Mensah C. (1999) Management of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) using pheromone traps and neem seed extract. MPhil thesis, ARPPIS, University of Ghana, Legon. 107 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Aluja M. and Birke A. (1993) Habitat use by adults of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a mixed mango and tropical plum orchard. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86, 799–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Appiah E. F. (2007) The relationship between the fruit phenology of late Valencia citrus (Citrus sinensis) and the abundance and distribution of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). MPhil thesis, ARPPIS, University of Ghana, Legon. 86 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Appiah E. F., Afreh-Nuamah K. and Obeng-Ofori D. (2009) Abundance and distribution of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Late Valencia citrus orchards in Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 29, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Billah M., Wilson D. D., Cobblah M. A., Lux S. A. and Tumfo J. A. (2006) Detection of the preliminary survey of the new Bactrocera invasive fruit fly species in Ghana. Journal of the Ghana Science Association 8, 138–144.Google Scholar
  9. Davies F. S. and Albrigo L. G. (1994) Citrus. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. 272 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Dent D. (1992) Insect Pest Management. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. 424 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Ekesi S. (2010) Combating fruit flies in eastern and southern Africa (COFESA): elements of a strategy and action plan for a regional cooperation program Scholar
  12. Ekesi S. and Billah M. K. (2006) A Field Guide to the Management of Economically Important Tephritid Fruit Flies in Africa, icipe Science Press, Nairobi. 160 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Ekesi S., Billah M. K., Nderitu P. W., Lux S. A. and Rwomushana I. (2009) Evidence for competitive displacement of Ceratitis cosyra by the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango and mechanisms contributing to the displacement. Journal of Economic Entomology 102, 981–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. GEPC (Ghana Export Promotion Council) (2006) Current investment opportunities in Ghana. Scholar
  15. Goergen G., Vayssières J.-F., Gnanvossou D. and Tindo M. (2011) Bactrocera invadens, a new fruit fly problem in the Afrotropics: distribution and host-plant range in West and Central Africa. Environmental Entomology 40, 844–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IAEA (2003) Thematic Plan for Fruit Fly Control Using the Sterile Insect Technique (TP-NA-D4-02; limited distribution). IAEA Publication, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  17. Lux S. A., Ekesi S., Dimbi S., Mohamed S. and Billah M. K. (2003) Mango-infesting fruit flies in Africa: perspectives and limitations of biological approaches to their management, pp. 277–294. In Biological Control in Integrated IPM Systems in Africa (edited by P. Neuenschwander, C. Borgemeister and J. Langewald). CABI Publishing, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  18. Manrakhan A. (2006) Fruit fly monitoring-purpose, tools and methodology, pp. C1-C14. In A Field Guide to the Management of Economically Important Tephritid Fruit Flies in Africa (edited by S. Ekesi and M. K. Billah). icipe Science Press, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  19. Matiola J. C., Rossi M. M. and Bueno V. H. P. (1990) Attractants for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in peach orchards in Caldas, MG. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 18 (suppl.), 119–129.Google Scholar
  20. Mwatawala M. W., De Meyer M., Makundi R. H. and Maerere A. P. (2006) Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in orchards in different agro-ecological zones of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Fruits 61, 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mwatawala M. W., De Meyer M., Makundi R. H. and Maerere A. P. (2009) Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research 99, 629–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ofosu-Budu K. G., Monney E. O., Quaye E., Amankwah A., Mintah P., Mpere-Asare C. and Agboka M. (2007) Citrus production in Ghana. Horticulture Export Industry Initiatve (HEII), Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra, Ghana. 108 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Papadopoulos N. T., Katsoyannos B. I., Carey J. R. and Kouloussis N. A. (2001) Seasonal and annual occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94, 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Puche H., Midgarden D. G., Ovalle O., Rendra P. E., Epsky N. D., Rendon P. and Heath R. R. (2005) Effects of elevation and host availability on distribution of sterile and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Florida Entomologist 88, 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ruck J. A. (1969) Chemical methods for analysis of fruit and vegetable products. Canada Department of Agriculture, Summerland, B.C., pp. 14–33.Google Scholar
  26. Thompson F. C. (ed.) (1998) Fruit fly expert identification system and biosystematic information database. Myia 9, 524 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Trostle M. K. D. (2005) Classical biological control of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), (Diptera: Tephritidae): natural enemy exploration and non-target testing. PhD thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. 226 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Weinberger K. and Lumpkin T. A. (2007) Diversification into horticulture and poverty reduction: a research agenda. World Development 35, 1464–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. White I. M. and Elson-Harris M. M. (1992) Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics. CAB International, Wallingford. 601 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caroline Ngichop Foba
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kwame Afreh-Nuamah
    • 2
  • Maxwell Kelvin Billah
    • 2
  • Daniel Obeng-Ofori
    • 2
  1. 1.icipe — African Insect Science for Food and HealthNairobiKenya
  2. 2.African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science (ARPPIS), Sub-regional Centre for West AfricaUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana

Personalised recommendations