Advertisement

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 124–129 | Cite as

Susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, West Africa

  • Tolu T. Adeniran
  • Charles A. Brown
  • William Rogers
  • Michael D. Wilson
  • Maxwell A. Appawu
  • Daniel A. BoakyeEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Pyrethroids are the insecticides of choice for the treatment of bednets for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles spp. vectors may adversely impact malaria control measures, and therefore it is important to know the initial level of pyrethroid resistance before pyrethroid-treated bednets are introduced. Furthermore, a search for replacement insecticides is necessary to manage any eventual high-resistance levels to pyrethroid insecticides that may affect the effectiveness of treated bednets. This study reports on the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.s. exposed for 1 h to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the carbamate insecticide propoxur, at eight localities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The observed mortality rates ranged between 21-92% and 92-100% to permethrin and propoxur, respectively. The results also showed a reduction in the knockdown time (KD50 and KD95) in propoxur (mean KD50 = 20 min and mean KD95 = 31 min) when compared with permethrin (mean KD50 = 47 min and mean KD95 = 87min). The results suggest that permethrin may not be effective in all areas. Where pyrethroid resistance is a problem, propoxur could be an alternative for indoor residual spraying and for insecticide-treated materials such as curtains and eave screens.

Key words

Anopheles gambiae s.s. permethrin propoxur insecticide resistance Ghana 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott W. S. (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18, 265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adasi K. (2001) Studies on the insecticide usage and pyrethroid resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Greater Region of Ghana. MPhil Entomology Thesis, Zoology Department, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  3. Adasi K. and Hemingway J. (2009) Susceptibility to three pyrethroids and detection of knockdown resistance mutation in Ghanaian Anopheles gambiae sensu strico. Journal of Vector Ecology 33, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Awolola T. S., Oduolaa O. A., Strode C., Koekemoer L. L., Brooke B. and Ranson H. (2008) Evidence of multiple pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto from Nigeria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene doi:101016/j.trstmh.2008.08.021.Google Scholar
  5. Binka E N., Kubaje A., Adjuik M., Williams L. A., Lengeler C., Maude G. H., Armah G. E., Kajihara B., Adiamah J. H. and Smith P. G. (1996) Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandre E., Darrier E., Manga L., Akogbeto M., Faye O., Mouchet J. and Guillet P. (1999a) Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77, 230–234.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Chandre E., Darriet E., Manguin S., Brengues C., Carnevale P. and Guillet P. (1999b) Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.S. from Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 15, 53–59.Google Scholar
  8. Chandre E., Brengues C., Dossou-Yovo J., Ma G. S., Darriet E., Diabate A., Carnevale P. and Guillet P. (1999c) Current distribution of a pyrethroid resistance gene (Mr) in Anopheles gambiae complex from West Africa and further evidence for reproductive isolation of the Mopti form. Parasitologia 41, 319–322.Google Scholar
  9. Coetzee M., van Wyk P., Booman M., Koekemoer L. L. and Hunt R. H. (2006) Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes in a gold mining town in Ghana and implications for malaria control. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 99, 400–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Collins E +H., Mendez M. A., Razmussen M. O., Mehaffey P. C, Besansky N. J. and Finnerty V. (1987) A ribosomal RNA gene probe differentiates member species of Anopheles gambiae complex. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37, 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corbel V., N’Guessan R., Brengues C., Chandre E., Djogbenou L., Martin T., Akogbeto M., Hougard J. M. and Rowland M. (2007) Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinque-fasciatus from Benin, West Africa. Acta Tropica 101, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Curtis C. E. (1985) Theoretical models of the use of insecticide mixtures for the management of resistance. Bulletin of Entomological Research 75, 259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curtis C. E., Hill N. and Kasim K. (1993) Are there effective resistance management strategies for vectors of human diseases? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 48, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curtis C. E, Miller J. E., Hodjati M. E, Kolaczinski J. H. and Kasumba I. (1998) Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Bulletin of Biological Sciences 353, 1769–1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cuzin-Ouattara N, Van den Broek A. H. A., Habluetzel A., Diabaté A., Sanogo-Ilboudo E., Diallo D. A., Cousens S. N. and Esposito E. (1999) Wide-scale installation of insecticide-treated curtains confers high levels of protection against malaria transmission in a hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 473–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Habluetzel A., Diallo D. A., Esposito E., Lamizana L., Pagnoni E., Lengeler C., Traoré C. and Cousens S. N. (1997) Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso? Tropical Medicine and International Health 2, 855–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hargreaves K., Koekemoer L. L., Brooke B. D., Hunt R. H., Mtembu J. and Coetzee M. (2000) Anopheles funestus is resistant to pyrethroid insecticides in South Africa. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14, 190–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ilboudo-Sanogo E., Cuzin-Ouattara N., Diallo D. A., Cousens S. N., Esposito E., Habluetzel A., Sanon S. and Ouédraogo A. P. (2001) Insecticide-treated materials, mosquito adaptation and mass effect: entomological observations after five years of vector control in Burkina Faso. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kahindi C. S. (2005) Resistance mechanisms and susceptibility to organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Hohoe District, Ghana. MPhil Entomology Thesis, African Regional Postgraduate Program in Insect Science, University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  20. Klinkenberg E., McCall P., Wilson M. D., Amerasinghe F. P. and Donnelly M. J. (2008) Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana. Malaria Journal 7, 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kolaczinski J. H. and Curtis C. E (2004) Investigation of negative cross-resistance as a resistance-management tool for insecticide-treated nets. Journal of Medical Entomology 41, 930–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kristan M., Fleischmann H., Delia Torre A., Stich A. and Curtis C. E. (2003) Pyrethroid resistance/susceptibility and differential urban/rural distribution of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae s.S. malaria vectors in Nigeria and Ghana. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 17, 326–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kurtak D., Meyer R., Ocran M., Ouedraogo M., Renaud P., Sawadogo R. O. and Tele B. (1987) Management of insecticide resistance in control of the Simulium damnosum complex by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme, West Africa: potential use of negative correlation between organophosphate resistance and pyrethroid susceptibility. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lengeier C. (2004) Insecticide-treated bednets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No. CD000363. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000363.pub2.Google Scholar
  25. Majori G., Sabatinelli G. and Coluzzi M. (1987) Efficacy of permethrin-impregnated curtains for malaria vector control. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 1, 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martinez-Torres D., Chandre F., Williams M. S., Darriet R., Bergé J. B., Devonshire A. L., Guillet P., Pasteur N. and Pauron D. (1998) Molecular characterisation of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.S. Insect Molecular Biology 7, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scott J. A., Brogdon W. G. and Collins R H. (1993) Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 49, 520–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vulule J. M., Beach R. R, Atieli R K., McAllister J. C, Brogdon W. G., Roberts J. M., Mwangi R. W. and Hawley W. A. (1999) Elevated oxidase and esterase levels associated with permethrin tolerance in An. gambiae from Kenyan villages using permethrin-impregnated nets. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 13, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. World Health Organisation (1998) Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces. WHO unpublished document, WHO/CDS/ CPC/MAL/98.12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tolu T. Adeniran
    • 1
  • Charles A. Brown
    • 1
  • William Rogers
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael D. Wilson
    • 1
  • Maxwell A. Appawu
    • 1
  • Daniel A. Boakye
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical ResearchUniversity of GhanaLegonGhana
  2. 2.Naval Medical Research CentreMalaria ProgramSilver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations