Advertisement

Intraspecific competition in the Parthenium beetle Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): effect of larval crowding on life-history traits

  • OmkarEmail author
  • Uzma Afaq
Research Paper

Abstract

The effects of larval crowding on growth, development and reproductive output of the Parthenium beetle Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister were investigated. Experimental manipulations of larval densities indicated that crowding creates intraspecific competition among the larvae, which negatively affected their growth and development. Larvae at high densities grew more slowly and exhibited longer larval periods compared with those at lower densities. Best-fit curves of developmental rates against larval densities were drawn, which revealed maximum theoretical density for 95% (6 or 15 larvae/63.6 cm2) and 50% developmental rate (1.75 larvae/63.6 cm2), respectively. The reproductive potential of the beetle reared at different larval densities was also observed, but no effect of increased larval densities was observed.

Key words

development and growth intraspecific competition weed biological control reproduction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allee W. C. (1931) Animal Aggregations: A Study in General Sociology. Chicago University Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 431 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amarasekare P. (2000) Spatial dynamics in a host-multiparasitoid community. The Journal of Animal Ecology 69, 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Applebaum S. W. and Heifetz Y. (1999) Density-dependent physiological phase in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 44, 317–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhoopathi R. and Gautam R. D. (2006) Effect of temperature on biological attributes of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera). Journal of Entomological Research 30, 255–258.Google Scholar
  5. Botella L. M., Moya A., Gonzalez M. C. and Mensua J. L. (1985) Larval stop, delayed development and survival in overcrowded cultures of Drosophila melanogaster; effect of urea and uric acid. Journal of Insect Physiology 31, 179–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crowley P. H., Nisbet R. M., Gurney W. S. C. and Lawton J. H. (1987) Population regulation in animals with complex life-histories: formulation and analysis of a damselfly model. Advances in Ecological Research 17, 1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Debouzie D. (1977) Effect of initial population size on Ceratitis productivity under limited food conditions. Annales de Zoologie Ecologie Anímale 9, 367–381.Google Scholar
  8. Denno R. F., Douglass L. W. and Jacobs D. (1986) Effects of crowding and host plant nutrition on a wing-dimorphic planthopper. Ecology 67, 116–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dhileepan K. and McFadyen R. E. (1997) Biological control of Parthenium in Australia: progress and prospects, pp. 40–44. In First International Conference on Parthenium Management (edited by M. Mahade-veppa and V. C. Patil). University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad.Google Scholar
  10. Dhileepan K., Setter S. D. and McFadyen R. E. (2000) Response of the weed Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) to defoliation by the introduced bio-control agent Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Biological Control 19, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixon A. F. G. (1970) Quality and availability of food for a sycamore aphid population, pp. 271–287. In Animal Population in Relation to their Food Resources (edited by A. Watson). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Drosopoulos S. (1977) Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 284, 77–114.Google Scholar
  13. Ellis P. E. (1963) Changes in the social aggregation of locust hoppers with changes in rearing conditions. Animal Behaviour 11, 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Evans E. W. (1982) Consequences of body size for fecundity in the predatory stinkbug, Podisus maculi-ventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75, 418–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fantinou A. A., Perdikis D. C. and Stamogiannis N. (2008) Effect of larval crowding on the life history traits of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). European Journal of Entomology 105, 625–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher R. C. (1961) A study in insect multiparasitism. II. The mechanism and control of competition for possession of the host. Journal of Experimental Biology 38, 605–628.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher R. C. (1963) Oxygen requirements and the physiological suppression of supernumerary insect parasitoids. Journal of Experimental Biology 40, 531–540.Google Scholar
  18. Ghent A. W. (1960) A study of the group-feeding behaviour of larvae of the jack pine sawfly Neodiprion pratti banksiana Rohwer. Behaviour 16, 110–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gibbs M., Lace L. A., Jones M. J. and Moore A. J. (2004) Intraspecific competition in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria: effect of rearing density and gender on larval history. Journal of Insect Science 4, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gilbert N. (1984) Control of fecundity in Pieris rapae. I. The problem. Journal of Animal Ecology 53, 581–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hawley W. A. (1985) The effect of larval density on adult longevity of a mosquito, Aedes sierrensis: epidemiological consequences. Journal of Animal Ecology 54, 955–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Helgen J. C. (1987) Feeding rate inhibition in crowded Daphnia pulex. Hydrobiology 154, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hemptinne J. L., Gaudin M., Dixon A. F. G. and Loganay G. (2000) Social feeding in ladybirds: adaptive significance and mechanism. Chemoecology 10, 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Javois J., Tammaru T. and Kaar M. (2004) Oviposition in an eruptive moth species, Yponomeuta evonymellus, is insensitive to the population density experienced during the larval period. Entomología Experimentalis et Applicata 115, 379–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jayanth K. P. and Bali G. (1994) Biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus by the beetle Zygogramma bicolorata in India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 42, 207–213.Google Scholar
  26. Jayanth K. P. and Nagarkatti S. (1987) Investigations on the host-specificity and damage potential of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) introduced into India and for the biological control of Parthenium hysterophorus. Entomon 12, 141–145.Google Scholar
  27. Johnson M. D. (1990) Female size and fecundity in the small carpenter bee Ceratina calcarata (Robertson) (Hymenoptera: Anthohoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 63, 414–419.Google Scholar
  28. Juliano S. A. (1988) Chrysomelid beetles on water lily leaves: herbivore density, leaf survival, and herbivore maturation. Ecology 69, 1294–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karban R. (1986) Interspecific competition between folivorous insects on Erigeron glaucus. Ecology 67, 1063–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kawai A. (1981) Effect of larval density on development and oviposition of the melon fly Dacus cucurbitae Coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu 25, 109–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kazimirova M. (1996) Influence of larval crowding and mating on lifespan and fecundity of Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). European Journal of Entomology 9, 17–40.Google Scholar
  32. Kisimoto R. (1965) Studies on the polymorphisms and its role playing in the population growth of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. Bulletin of the Shikoku Agricultural Experiment Station 13, 1–106.Google Scholar
  33. Klok C. and Chown S. L. (1999) Assessing the benefits of aggregation: thermal biology and water relations of anomalous emperor moth caterpillars. Functional Ecology 13, 417–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lawton J. H., Thompson B. A. and Thompson D. (1980) The effect of prey density on survival and growth of damsel fly larvae. Ecological Entomology 5, 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mattson W. J. (1980) Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 119–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McClure M. S. and Price P. W. (1975) Competition and coexistence among sympatric Erythroneura leaf-hoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on American sycamore. Ecology 56, 1388–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McFadyen R. E. and McClay A. R. (1981) Two new insects for the biological control of parthenium weed in Queensland, pp. 145–149. In Sixth Australian Weeds Conference (edited by B. J. Wilson and J. D. Swarbick).Google Scholar
  38. McGraw G. B. and Caswell H. (1996) Estimation of individual fitness level from life-history data. The American Naturalist 147, 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McNeil S. and Southwood T. R. E. (1978) The role of nitrogen in the development of insect/plant relationships, pp. 77–99. In Biochemical Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution (edited by J. B. Harbore). Academic Press, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  40. Michaud J. P. and Grant A. K. (2004) Adaptive significance of sibling egg cannibalism in Coccinel-lidae: comparative evidence from three species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97, 710–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Muller H. C. B. and Godfray H. C. J. (1999) Predators and mutualists influence the exclusion of aphid species from natural communities. Oecologia 119, 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nahrung H. F., Dunstan P. K. and Alien G. R. (2001) Larval gregariousness and neonate establishment of the eucalypt-feeding beetle Chrysophtharta agrícola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Paropsini). Oikos 94, 358–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Omkar, Pandey P. and Rastogi S. (2009) Rhythmicity in life-history traits of Parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Biological Rhythm Research 40, 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Omkar, Rastogi S. and Pandey P. (2008) Effect of temperature on development and immature survival of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) under laboratory conditions. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 28, 130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pickup J. and Thompson D. J. (1984) The effect of prey density and temperature on development of larvae of damselfly Lestes spons (Hans.) (Zygoptera: Lestidae). Advances in Odonatology 2, 169–176.Google Scholar
  46. Price P. W., Bouton C. E., Gross P., McPheron B. A., Thompson J. N. and Weis A. E. (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plant on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 41–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Prout T. and McChesney F. (1985) Competition among immatures affects their adult fertility: population dynamics. The American Naturalist 126, 521–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pulliam H. R. and Caraco T. (1984) Living in groups: is there an optimal group size?, pp. 122–147. In Behavioral Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (edited by J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies). Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  49. Putman R. J. (1977) The dynamics of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala within carrion. Journal of Animal Ecology 46, 853–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rahman M. (1969) Effects of different foods on the development of Pieris rapae L. larvae (Lep: Pieridae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology 1, 35–40.Google Scholar
  51. Rhoades D. F. (1983) Herbivore population dynamics and plant chemistry pp. 155–220. In Variable Plants and Herbivores in Natural and Managed Systems (edited by R. F. Denno and M. S. McClure). Academic Press, New York, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roessingh P. and Simpson S. J. (1994) The time course of behavioural phase change in nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Physiological Entomology 19, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scott D. E. (1990) Effects of larval density in Ambystoma opacum: an experiment in large-scaled field enclosures. Ecology 71, 296–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stamp N. E. (1980) Egg deposition patterns in butterflies: why do some species cluster their eggs rather than deposit them singly? The American Naturalist 115, 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stienhaus E. A. (1958) Crowding as a possible stress factor in insect disease. Ecology 39, 503–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Strong D. R., Lawton H. and Southwood T. R. E. (1984) Insects on Plants: Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. 313 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Suleman M. (1982) The effect of intraspecifuc competition for food and space on the larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus. Mosquito News 42, 347–356.Google Scholar
  58. Thornhill R. J. and Alcock J. (1983) The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. 547 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tsiropoulos G. J. and Manoukas A. G. (1977) Adult quality of Dacus oleae (Gmelin) affected by larval crowding and pupal irradiation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 70, 916–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Valle R. R., Kuno E. and Nakasuji F. (1989) Competition between laboratory populations of green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. (Homoptera: Ciacadellidae). Researches on Population Ecology 31, 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wiklund C. and Forsberg J. (1991) Sexual size dimorph-ism in relation to female polygamy and protandry in butterflies: a comparative study of Swedish Pieridae and Satyridae. Oikos 60, 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ladybird Research Laboratory, Department of ZoologyUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations