Effectiveness and profitability of integrated pest management for improving yield on smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana

  • E. N. A. DormonEmail author
  • A. van Huis
  • C. Leeuwis


Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low producer prices. There is also concern that use of synthetic pesticides on a wide scale can affect both human health and the environment. With the objective of improving cocoa yields through environmentally friendly pest control practices, evaluation of an integrated pest management (IPM) package based on aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed extracts to control the insect pests and cultural practices to manage the diseases, weeds and parasitic plants was undertaken in farmers’ fields with their active participation. The IPM package improved yields significantly and was found to be more profitable than the farmers’ practices. However, there are two major constraints to adoption of the package by farmers: it is labour-intensive and currently, neem is not readily available to the community. The study recommends that these constraints must be tackled to motivate the farmers to adopt or adapt the IPM package.

Key words

Azadirachta indica capsids IPM package adoption 


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Copyright information

© ICIPE 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication and Innovation Studies GroupWageningen UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of EntomologyWageningen UniversityThe Netherlands

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