Advertisement

Habitat Preferences and Activity Patterns of Glossina Swynnertoni Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Aitong, Masai Mara, Kenya

  • Paul N. NdegwaEmail author
  • Steve Mihok
  • Florence A. Oyieke
Research Article

Abstract

The habitat preferences and activity patterns of Glossina swynnertoni Austen were studied using Siamese traps, electrified screens and vehicle patrols in Aitong, southwestern Kenya in three habitats: large thicket, wooded grassland and an Acacia community. Except in the Acacia community, G. swynnertoni occurred in association with Glossina pallidipes Austen. Apparent density varied significantly among the three habitats, being highest in the Acacia community, intermediate in wooded grassland and lowest in large thickets. Density also varied seasonally, with higher densities occurring in the rainy season than in the dry season in all three areas. Vehicle patrol was a more effective and rapid method for sampling G. swynnertoni than either Siamese traps or electrified screens. However, vehicle patrol catches were strongly biased in favour of males (4:1). Diurnal activity in the Acacia community was unimodal for both sexes, with peaks of activity occurring at 1100–1200 h for males and at 1400–1500 h for females. Both sexes remained active in the afternoon but activity declined rapidly towards dusk (1700–1800 h).

Key Words

Glossina swynnertoni sampling traps electrified screens vehicle patrols habitat features eco-distribution apparent density activity patterns 

Résumé

Les préférences d’habitat et les rythmes d’activité de Glossina swynnertoni Austen ont été étudiés à l’aide de pièges de Siamese, d’écrans electrifies et de récoltes (patrouilles) en voiture, à Aitong, dans le Sud-ouest du Kenya dans trois habitats des grands bosquets, de la savane arborée et une forêt d’acacias. A l’exception de la forêt d’acacias, G. swynnertoni est rencontrée en association avec G. pallidipes Austen. La densité apparente varie significativement entre les trois habitats; elles est la plus forte dans la forêt d’acacias, intermédiaire en savane arborée et plus faible dans les grands bosquets. La densité varie également avec la saison, avec de plus fortes densités observées en saison des pluies par rapport à la saison sèche dans les trois habitats. Les captures réalisées lors des patrouilles en voiture sont plus efficaces et rapides pour l’échantillonnage de G. swynnertoni que les pièges de Siamese, et que les écrans électrifiés; ces captures sont cependant fortement biaisées en faveur des mâles (4:1). L’activité diurne dans la forêt d’acacias est unimodale pour les deux sexes, avec des pics d’activité entre 1100–1200 h pour les mâles et 1400–1500 pour les femelles. Les deux sexes restent actifs dans l’après-midi mais l’activité décline rapidement vers le crépuscule (1700–1800 h).

Mots Clés

Glossina swynnertoni pièges écrans electrifies patrouille en véhicule caractéristiques de l’habitat eco-distribution densité apparente rythme d’activité 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adlington D., Randolph S. E. and Rogers D. J. (1996) Flying to mate or flying to feed: gender differences in the flight activity of tsetse (Glossina palpalis). Physiol. Ent. 21, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brady J. and Crump A. J. (1978) The control of circadian activity rhythms in tsetse flies: environmental or physiological clock? Physiol. Ent. 3, 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buxton P. A. (1955) The natural history of tsetse flies: An account of the biology of the genus Glossina (Diptera). Mem. Lond. Sch. Hyg. Trop. Med. Memoir 10. H. K. Lewis and Co., London.Google Scholar
  4. Brighrwell R., Dransfield R. D. and Kyorku C. (1991) Development of a low-cost tsetse trap and odourbaits for Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis in Kenya. Med. Vet. Ent. 5, 153–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carnevale P. and Adams J. P. (1971) Contribution à l’étude biologique de Glossina palpalis R-D. en République populaire du Congo. Proceedings of ISCTRC 10th Meeting, OAU/STRC Publication, 105, 207–211.Google Scholar
  6. Challier A. (1982) The ecology of tsetse (Glossina spp., Diptera, Glossinidae): A mini review (1970–1981). Insect Sci. Applic. 3, 97–143.Google Scholar
  7. Challier A., Eyraud M., Lafaye A. and Laveissière C. (1977) Amelioration du rendement du piege biconique por glossines (Diptera: Glossinidae) par l’emploi d’un cone inferieur bleu. Cahiers d’QRSTOM, Série Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie 15, 283–286Google Scholar
  8. Crump A. J. and Brady J. (1979) Circadian activity in three species of tsetse fly: Glossina palpalis, G. austeni and G. morsitans. Physiol. Ent. 4, 311–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dar F. K., Wilson A. J., Goedbloed E., Ligthart G. S. and Minter D. M. (1973) Serological studies on trypanosomiasis in East Africa I: Introduction and techniques. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasilol. 67, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dublin H. T. (1995) Vegetation dynamics in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem: The role of elephants, fire and other factors, pp. 71–90. In Serengeti II, Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem (Edited by A. R. E. Sinclair and P. Arcese ).Google Scholar
  11. Gooding R. H. (1997) Genetics of hybridization of Glossina swynnertoni with Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina morsitans centralis. Med. Vet. Ent. 11, 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hargrove J. W. and Brady J. (1992) Activity rhythms of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) at low and high temperatures in nature. Bull. Ent. Res. 82, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hargrove J. R. and Williams B. G. (1995) A cost-benefit analysis of feeding in female tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae). Med. Vet. Ent. 9, 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jackson C. H. N. (1933) Causes and implications of hunger in tsetse flies. Bull. Ent. Res. 24, 443–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kyorku C., Machika C. O., Otieno L. H. and Mwandandu D. J. (1995) An improved odour-baited trap for a mixed population of Glossina spp. in Kenya coast. Beneficial African Insects: A renewable resource. Proceedings of the 10th meeting and scientific conference of African Association of Insect Scientists, Nairobi, 235–244. Odindo, M. V. (Editor).Google Scholar
  16. Langridge W. P., Smith J. A. and Wateridge L. E. D. (1970) Some observations on the ecology of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in the Mara region of Kenya. Proceedings of the International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research, 12thMeeting, Banjul, OAU/STRC Publication, 102, 203–211.Google Scholar
  17. Laveissière C. et Grébaut P. (1990) Recherche sur les pièges à glossines (Diptera: Glossinidae) mise au point d’un modèle économique: le pièges ‘Vavoua’. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 41, 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lewis E. A. (1935) Tsetse flies in the Maasai reserve, Kenya Colony. Bull. Ent. Res. 25, 439–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lloyd L. H. M. (1935) Notes on the bionomics of Glossina swynnertoni Austen. Bull, of Ent. Res. 26, 439–468.Google Scholar
  20. Lloyd L. (1912) Notes on Glossina morsitans Westw. in the Luangwa Valley, Northern Rhodesia. Bull. Ent. Res. 26, 439–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moloo S. K., Steiger R. F. and Brun R. (1973) Trypanosome infection rates in Glossina swynnertoni and G. pallidipes in Ikoma, Musoma District, Tanzania. Parasitol. 66, 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Morgan W. T. W. and Shaffer N. M. (1966) Population of Kenya: Density and Distribution. Oxford University Press, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  23. Ndegwa P. N. (1997) Studies on ecology and epidemiological importance of Glossina swynnertoni Austen in Aitong, Maasai Mara, south-western Kenya. PhD Thesis, University of Nairobi.Google Scholar
  24. Owaga M. L. A., Okela R. O. and Chaudhury M.E.B. (1993) Diel activity patterns of the tsetse fly Glossina austeni Newstead (Diptera:Glossinidae) in the field and in the laboratory. Insect Sci. Appl. 14, 701–705.Google Scholar
  25. Popham E. J. and Vickers H. (1979) Tsetse fly reactions to light and humidity gradients. Experientia 35, 194–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rajagopal P. K. and Bursell E. (1996) The respiratory metabolism of resting tsetse flies. Insect Physiol. 12, 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Randolph S. E., Rogers D. J., Dransfield R. D. and Brightwell R. (1991) Trap-catches, nutritional condition and timing of activity of tsetse fly Glossina longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 81, 455–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rogers D. and Boreham P. F. L. (1973) Sleeping sickness survey in the Serengeti area (Tanzania) 1971. II. The vector role of Glossina swynnertoni Austen. Acta Trop. 302–242–35.Google Scholar
  29. Rowcliffe C. and Finlayson L. H. (1982) Active and resting behaviour of virgin and pregnant females of Glossina morsitans morsians Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the laboratory. Bull. Ent. Res. 72, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stiles J. K., Otieno L. H., Chaudhury M. F. B. and Moloo S. K. (1994) Upsurge of tsetse fly Glossina swynnertoni Austen at Nguruman, Kenya. Med. Vet. Ent. 8, 199–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swynnerton C. F. M. (1923) The relationship of some East African tsetse to the flora and fauna. Trans. Soc. Trop. Maf. Hyg. 17, 128–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Swynnerton C. F. M. (1933) Some traps for the tsetse flies. Bull. Ent. Res. 24, 69–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Swynnerton C. F. M. (1936) The tsetse flies of East Africa. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. hond. 84, 1–579.Google Scholar
  34. TPRI (1994) Evaluation of efficiency of attractive devices and odours for control and monitoring of tsetse flies through community participation in Tanzania. Tropical Pesticide Research Institute, Misc. Rep. No. 1064.Google Scholar
  35. Turner D. A. (1980) Tsetse ecological studies in Niger and Mozambique—I. Populaton sampling. Insect Sci. Applic. 1, 9–13.Google Scholar
  36. Vale G. A. (1974) New field methods for studying the responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to hosts. Bull. Ent. Res. 64, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vicars-Harris (1936) Glossina swynnertoni Austen in relation to various vegetation types. Bull. Ent. Res. 27, 533–537.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul N. Ndegwa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steve Mihok
    • 2
  • Florence A. Oyieke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya
  2. 2.International Centre of Insect Physiology and EcologyNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations