International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 633–648 | Cite as

Social and Economic Aspects of Integrated Pest Management in the Tropics

  • J. W. Ssennyonga
  • G. Goodell
  • G. T. Lako
  • S. Xedla


This paper reviews major concepts and achievements made in the tropics in tackling; five major social and economic issues associated with research, development and adoption of integrated pest management technologies during the past two decades. Major focus has been placed on (i) integrating IPM into farming systems, (if) monitoring pest populations, (iii) information and management intensity of IPM, (iv) economic viability of IPM, and (v) institutional factors affecting IPM. Emphasis is placed on pinpointing ways in which success can be achieved and how constraints can be overcome in order to make IPM work better in future.


integration farming systems monitoring pests economic viability information intensity institutional factors 


Cet article constitue une revue des réalisations sous les tropiques dans la résolution de cinq probièmes socio-économiques majeurs en relation avec la recherche, le développement et l’adoption des technologies intégrées pour lutter contre les pestes, durant ces deux dernières décennies. Les points majeurs ciblés sont: (i) intégration des IPM dans les systèmes culturaux, (ii) surveillance des populations des insectes ravageurs, (iii) information la gestion des IPM, (iv) viabilité économique des IPM, et (v) facteurs institutionnels affectant les IPM. L’accent est mis sur les voies du succès et les moyens de contourner les contraintes en vue d’améliorer les IPM dans l’avenir.

Mots Clés

intégration systèmes culturaux surveillance des insectes ravageurs viabilité économique flot d’information facteurs institutionnels 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abadin Z. and Haque F.(1989) Innovator workshops in Bangladesh. In Farmers First. Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research (Edited by Chambers R., Pacey A. and Thrupp L. A.), pp. 132–136, Intermediate Technology Publications, London.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed M.M., Otieno L. H. and Muchiri J. (1991) Ecology and control of Glossina pallidipes in the Lambwe Valley. Nineteenth Annual Report of ICIPE. ICIPE Science Press, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  3. Alebeek Van F. A. (Ed.) (1989) Integrated Pest Management. A Catalogue of Training and Extension Materials. Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation. The Netherlands, Department of Entomology. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  4. Baker G., Hendrick C., Knipscheer J. and De Souza N. (1988) The impact of regular research field hearing (RRFH) in on-farm trials in northeast Brazil. Expl. Agric. 24, 281–288. Overseas Development Institute, Great Britain.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldry D. A. T. (1983) The current integrated approach to trypanosomiasis control. In Pest and Vector Management in the Tropics (Edited by Youdeowei A. and Service M. W.), pp., 290–303. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  6. Beirne B. P. (1980) Biological control: Benefits and opportunities. In Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Perspectives in World Agriculture. Unwin Brothers, The Gresham Press Old Working, Surrey, England.Google Scholar
  7. Bull D. (1982) A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. OXFARM. Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  8. Brader L. (1979) Integrated pest control in the developing world. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24, 225–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brader L. (1982) Recent trends of pest control in the tropics. Ent. Exp. Appl. 31, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carson R. (1962) Silent Spring. Crest Books. Fawcett World Library, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Carter H. O. (1988) The agricultural sustainability issue: An overview and research assessment. In The Changing Dynamics of Global Agriculture (Edited by Javier E. and Renborg U.), pp. 115–135. DSE/ZEL, Felding, Germany.Google Scholar
  12. Coward E. W. J. (Ed.) (1980) Irrigation and Agricultural Development in Asia: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.Google Scholar
  13. Dipeolu O.O., Ndungu J. N. and Hassanali A. (1989) Acaricides from locally available natural products. Seventeenth Annual Report of ICIPE. pp. 36–37. ICIPE Science Press, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  14. FAO (1989) International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides: Analysis of Responses to the Questionnaires by Governments. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  15. Fleuret P. (1985) The social organisation of water control in Taita Hills, Kenya. American Ethnologist 12, 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldring L. (1985) Report on small-scale irrigation development in Mexico. In Water Management Synthesis II. Small-scale irrigation special study. Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  17. Goodell G. (1984) Challenges to international pest management research and extension in the Third World. Do we want IPM to work? Bull. Entomol. Soc.Amer. 30, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gray R. F. (1963) The Sonjo of Tanganyika: An Anthropological Study of an Irrigation-Based Society. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta A. (1989) Maps drawn by farmers and extensionists. In Farmers First, Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research (Edited by Chambers R., Pacey A. and Thrupp L. A.), pp. 86–92. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.Google Scholar
  20. Heong K. L. and Ho N. K. (1987) Farmers’ perceptions of the rice tungro virus problem. MManagement of Pests and Pesticides. Farmers’ Perceptions and Practices (Edited by Tait J. and Napompeth ), pp. 165–174; Westview Press, Boulder and London.Google Scholar
  21. Hussi P., Murphy J., Lindberg O. and Brenneman L. (1993) The development of cooperatives and other rural organisations. World Bank Technical Paper Number 199. Africa Technical Department Series. The World Bank, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  22. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (1990) Report (January 1987–December 1989) on Reduction of Food Losses Through Insect Pest Management and Use of Small-Scale Low Cost Farm Equipment in Africa: Mbita Point Field Station, Kenya.Google Scholar
  23. Jain H. K. (1990) Organisation and Management of Agricultural Research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Recent Experience and Future Direction. Working Paper No. 33. International Service for National Agricultural Research. The Hague, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  24. Johnson E. L. (1991) Pesticide Regulation in Developing Countries of the Asian-Pacific Region. American Chemical Society, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Kenmore P. E. (1991) Indonesia’s Integrated Pest Management. A Model for Asia. FAO Rice Programme, Manila, Philippines.Google Scholar
  26. Kiss A. and Meerman F. (1991) Integrated Pest Management and African Agriculture. World BankTechnical Paper No. 142. African Technical Department Series.Google Scholar
  27. Laveissiere C, Jean-Pierre E., Pascal G. and Jean-Jacques L. (1990) The control of riverine tsetse, Insect Sci. Applic. 11, 427–441.Google Scholar
  28. Lutzem berger J. (1989) Control and prevention of pests. Seminar CNP/FINEP. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  29. Mathias-Mundy E. (1989) Of herbs and healers. ILEIA Newsletter. October, 20–22.Google Scholar
  30. McCorkle C. M. (1986) An introduction to enthnoveterinary research and development. J. Ethnobiol. 6, 129–149.Google Scholar
  31. Mochida O. (1978) Brown planthopper, “Hama Wereng” problems on rice in Indonesia. World Bank and Government of Indonesia Report.Google Scholar
  32. Mumford J. and Norton G. A. (1987) Economics of integrated pest control. In Crop Loss Assessment and Pest Management (Edited by Teng P. S). The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  33. Norton G. A. and Heong K. L. (1988) An approach to technology development: Rice in Malaysia. Crop Protection 7, 84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norman D., Baker D., Heinrich G. and Worman F. (1988) Technology development and farmer groups. Experimental Agriculture 7, 231–331.Google Scholar
  35. Oka I. N. (1989) The Indonesian National Integration Pest Management Program: Success and Challenges. Indonesian Agric. Res. Dev. J. Vol. II, No. 3. Ministry of Agriculture, Research and Development, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  36. Pimentel D. (1987) Is Silent Spring behind us? In Silent Spring Revisited (Edited by Marco G.T., Hollingworth R. and Durham W.), pp. 175–187. American Chemical Society, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  37. Pingali P., Musicat P. and De Vera M. W. (1990) Phillipine irrigation trends for Luzon, 1966–1989. Social Sciences Division Paper HO. 90–93 International Rice Research Institute, July.Google Scholar
  38. Reichelderfer K.H., Carlson G. A. and Norton G. A. (1984) Economic Guidelines for Crop Pest Control. FAO, United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  39. Sautier D. and Amaral H. (1989) Integrated pest management or integrated systems management ILEIA Newsletter. October, 6–8.Google Scholar
  40. Senanayake Y. D. (1990) Overview of the organisation and structure of NARS in Asia. Working Paper No. 32. International Service for National Agricultural Research.Google Scholar
  41. Smith R. F. and Apple J. L. (1978) Principles of integrated pest control. In Short Course on Integrated Pest Control for Irrigated Rice in South and South East Asia, Philippines.Google Scholar
  42. Ssennyonga J. W. (1983) The Marakwet Irrigation system as a model of a systems approach to water management. In Kerio Valley: Past, Present and Future (Edited by Kipkorir B., Soper R. and Ssennyonga J.W.), pp. 96–111. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi. Eleza Services Limited, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  43. Ssennyonga J. W. (1984) Production systems. In Socio-Cultural Profile of Elgeyo Marakwet District (Edited by Kipkorir B. and Ssennyonga J. W.), pp. 18–27. University of Nairobi and Ministry of Finance, Kenya. Government Printers, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  44. Ssennyonga J. W. (1996) Improving the performance of community-managed tsetse and trypanosomiasis through collaboration and user participation. In Global Workshopon Partnerships of Safe and Sustainable Agriculture (Edited by Thrup L. A.). World Resources Institute, Washington, DC (In press).Google Scholar
  45. Sutherland A. T. (1987) Sociology in Farming Systems Research. Overseas Development Institute. Russell Press, Nottingham.Google Scholar
  46. Taylor A. T. (1991) Organisation and Structure of NARS in Anglophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper No. 38. International Services for National Agricultural Research. The Hague, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  47. Thurston H.D, and Glass E.H. (1978) PlantProtection in Developing Countries: Alternative Strategies. (Mimeo). Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
  48. Widstrad C. G. (Ed.) (1972) African Cooperatives and Efficiency. The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar
  49. Yoshida M.(1988) Eastern African rural development viewed from a Japanese perspective. Regional Development Dialogue 9, 73–84.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Ssennyonga
    • 1
  • G. Goodell
    • 2
  • G. T. Lako
    • 1
  • S. Xedla
    • 3
  1. 1.International Centre of Insect Physiology and EcologyNairobiKenya
  2. 2.The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS)The Johns Hopkins UniversityUSA
  3. 3.Institute of PathobiologyAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations