International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 583–598 | Cite as

The Changing Role of Pesticides in Pest Management

  • G. A. Schaefers


Significant changes have occurred in the role of pesticides in pest management programmes since the publication of Carson’s book Silent Spring in 1962. This discourse addresses the multitude of factors which contributed to these changes including such factors as policy and legislation, the public’s perception of associated risks, population pressures, the availability of practical integrated pest management programmes, and perhaps most importantly, the constraints to IPM in Third World countries. While reliable statistics are difficult to obtain, the changing patterns in pesticide use in the tropical regions are also discussed. Finally, the future of pesticide use in developing countries is projected, as is the necessity of their use and expected impacts.


policy legislation environmental impact production cultural control 


Des changements significatifs ont eu lieu à propos du rôle des pesticides dans des programmes de lutte dirigêe depuis la parution du livre de Carson “Le printemps silencieux” en 1962. Cet exposê aborde la multitude des facteurs qui ont contribuê à ces changements, notament des facteurs tels que politique et lêgislation, perception des risques associês par le public, pressions dêmographiques, disponibilitê des programmes pratiques de lutte dirigêe et plus important peut être, les contraintes à la lutte dirigêe dans le Tiers-Monde. Alors que des statistiques fiables sont difficiles à obtenir, les modes de changement dans l’usage des pesticides dans les rêgions tropicales sont aussi discutês. Finalement, des projections concernant l’avenir de l’usage des pesticides dans les pays en voie de dêveloppement sont faites tout comme sur la nêcessitê de leur usage et de leurs impacts attendus.

Mots Clés

politique législation impact écologique production lutte au moyen de practiques culturales 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alford H. G. (1985) Classification, chemistry and toxicology of pesticides. In Pest and Pesticide Management in East and Southern Africa (Edited by Jensen J., Stroud A. and Mukanyange J.), pp.109–111. USAID/REDSO/ESA, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1981) Poisons and peripheral people: Hazardous substances in the thirdworld. Cultural Survival Inc. Newsletter 5, 1–8.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1988) Opportunities to assist developing countries in the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals. The Conservation Foundation. USAID, Washington, 101 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1990) Facts and figures, International agricultural research. Rockefeller Foundation Report.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1991) Crop protection, vector control and pesticide use in developing countries. Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands. Report. Wageningen, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Borlaug N. E. (1990) The challenge of feeding 8 billion people. Farm Chemicals International 10, 12.Google Scholar
  7. Bottrell D. (1983) Social problems in pest management in the tropics. Insect Sci. Applic. 4, 179–184.Google Scholar
  8. Brader L. (1979) Integrated pest control in the developing world. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 24, 225–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brader L. (1982) Recent trends of insect control in the tropics. Ent. exp. & appl. 31, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brosten D. and Simmonds B. (1989) Inputs for the starving continent. Agrichemical Age 33, 6–7.Google Scholar
  11. Brown L. R. et al. (1990) State of the World. World Watch Institute. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  12. Burton D. K. and Philogene B. J. R. (1985) An overview of pesticide usage in Latin America (KIN 6N5:1985). University of Ottawa.Google Scholar
  13. Carson R. (1962) Silent Spring. Fawcett World Library, NY. 304 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Carter H. O. (1989) Agricultural sustainability: An overview and research assessment. Calif. Agric. 37, 16–18.Google Scholar
  15. Chapin G. and Wasserstrom R. (1983) Agricultural production and malaria resurgence in Central America and India. Nature 293, 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cramer H. H. (1967) Plant protection and world crop production. Pflanzenschutz Nachr. 20, 1–524.Google Scholar
  17. Davies J.E., Freed V.H., and Whittemore F. W. (1982) An agromedical approach to pesticide management, some health and environmental considerations. Univ. Miami, Miami, 320 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Davies J. E. and Lee J. A. (1987) Changing profiles in human health effects of pesticides. In Pesticide Science and Biotechnology (Edited by Greenhalgh R. and Roberts T.R.), pp. 533–538. Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Dollacker A. (1991) Pesticides in the third world. Pflanzenschutz Nachr. 44, 89–100.Google Scholar
  20. Dorn S. (1992) Stabilizing important agroecosystems: The contribution of juvenoids. In Papers Contributed by Ciba-Geigy. 19th Int. Cong. Entomology, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  21. Dowling K. (1990) Pesticide poisoning and preventive programmes in Nicaragua. ICET News 6, 3–4.Google Scholar
  22. FAO (1982) Agriculture towards 2000. FAO Report 23. FAO (1990) Report of the sub-regional workshop on pesticide management for western Africa. FAO, Regional Office for Africa.Google Scholar
  23. Farrell K. R. (1990) Agricultural pest control alternatives. Calif. Agric. 44, 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frisbie R. E. and Smith J. W. J. (1989) Biologically intensive integrated pest management: The future. Nat. Mtg. Entomol. Soc. Amer. Centennial Nat. Symp. Progress and Perspectives for the 21st Century, pp. 151–464.Google Scholar
  25. GAO (1979) Better regulation of pesticide exports and pesticide residues in imported foods is essential. (Rep. No. CED-79-43). US Govt. Acct. Office, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  26. Georghiou G. P. (1980) Insecticide resistance and prospects for its management. Residue Reviews. 76, 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Georghiou G. P. (1986) The magnitude of the resistance problem. In Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics. Nat. Acad. Press. Washington, DC. pp. 14–43.Google Scholar
  28. Gonzalez R.H. (1976) Crop protection inLatin America with special reference to integrated pest control. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 24, 66–74.Google Scholar
  29. Goodell G. (1984) Challenges to international pest management research and extension in the third world: Do we really want IPM to work? Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 30, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hansen M. (1987) Escape from the pesticide treadmill: Alternatives to pesticides in developing countries. Institute for Consumer Policy Research, Consumers Union of the United States, 185 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Haskell P. T. (1977) Integrated pest control and small farmer crop protection in developing countries. Outlook on Agriculture 9, 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herren H. R. and Neuenschwander P. (1991) Biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36, 257–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Irbansyah B., Nevill D.J., Triwiyono A. and Sastrosiswojo S. (1992) The practical implementation of IPM on cabbage in Indonesia. In Papers Contributed by Ciba-Geigy. 19th Int. Cong. Entomology, Beijing.Google Scholar
  34. Kibata G. B. (1985) Constraints in the implementation of Kenya’s pesticide legislation. In Pesticide Management in East and Southern Africa (Edited by Jensen J.), pp. 80–82. USAID/REDSO/ES A, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  35. Kibata G. N. (1992) Pesticides in Kenya. Kenya Agric. Res. Inst. Mimeo.Google Scholar
  36. Kumar R. (1984) Cultural Practices. Insect Pest Control with Special Reference to African Agriculture. Edward Arnold Ltd., London, pp. 73–87.Google Scholar
  37. Leonard H. J. (1987) Natural resources and economic development in Central America. International Institute for Environment and Development, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  38. Matteson P. C, Altieri M. A. and Gange W.C. (1984) Modification of small farmer practices for better pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29, 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Medina C.D., Velasco L. R. I. and Soriano J. S. J. (1992) Developing an insect monitoring system for rice farmers in the Philippines. In Papers Contributed by Ciba-Geigy. 19th Int. Cong. Entomol., Beijing.Google Scholar
  40. Metcalf R. L. (1980) Changing role of insecticides in crop protection. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 25, 219–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nickle J. L. (1973) Pest situations in changing agricultural systems, a review. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 19, 136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. NRC (1989) Alternative Agriculture. National Research Council, Board on Agriculture. Nat. Acad. Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  43. Okigbo B. N. (1991) Development of sustainable agricultural systems in Africa; role of international agricultural research centers and national agricultural research systems. UTA Distinguished African Scientist Lecture Series. 66 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Pimentel D. (1992) Pesticides and world food supply. In The Science of Global Change (Edited by Dunnette D. A.and O’Brien R. J.), pp. 309–323. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Repetto R. (1985) Paying the price: Pesticide subsidies in developing countries. World Resources Institute Research Report 2. 27 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Richardson L. (1990) Probing the “circle of poison”. Agrichem. Age. 20–21.Google Scholar
  47. Risch S.D., Andow D. and Altieri M. A. (1983) Agroecosystem diversity and pest control: Data, tentative conclusions, andnewresearch directions. Environ. Entomol. 12, 625–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rousch R. T. and Tabashnik B. E. (Eds.) (1990) Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods. Chapman and Hall, New York and London.Google Scholar
  49. Saxena K.N., Pala Okeyo A., Seshu-Reddy K.V., Omolo E. O. and Ngode L. (1990) Insect pest management and socio-economic circumstances of small-scale farmers for food crop production in western Kenya: A case study. Insect Sci. Applic. 10, 443–462.Google Scholar
  50. Schaefers G. A. (1990) Public sector pesticide use in Africa. J. Agric. Entomol. 7, 183–190.Google Scholar
  51. Schulten G. G. M. (1987) Challenges facing agricultural entomology in the tropics. Insect Sci. Applic. 8, 397–405.Google Scholar
  52. Schulten G. G. M. (1990) Needs and constraints of integrated pest management in developing countries. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent. 55 (2a), 207–216.Google Scholar
  53. Smith R. F. and Reynolds H. T. (1966) Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control. 1, 11–17.Google Scholar
  54. Tucker W. (1978) Of mites and men. Harper’s. August, 43–58.Google Scholar
  55. US AID (1990) I. Integrated pest management: A.I.D. policy and implementation, II. Pesticide use and poisoning: A global view. US Agency for International Development Report to the US Congress. Washington.Google Scholar
  56. Van der Wulp H. (1990) The state of pesticide management in the S ADCC region. FAO/SADCC Subregional Workshop on Pesticide Management. FAO Regional Office for Africa.Google Scholar
  57. van Huis A., Nauta R. S. and Vulto M. E. (1982) Traditional pest management in maize in Nicaragua: A survey. Department of Entomology Report 432. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  58. Vorley W. T. (1992) Putting industry’s IPM training and extension responsibility into practice in developing countries. In Papers presented by Ciba-Geigy. 19th Int. Cong. Entomol. Beijing.Google Scholar
  59. Wasilewski A. (1987) The quiet epidemic, pesticide poisonings in Asia. IDRC Reports 16, 18–19.Google Scholar
  60. Wittwer S. H. (1979) Pesticides as part of the food production system. In 9th Int. Cong. Entomology 1, 222–224, Burgess Publishing Co., Washington.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Schaefers
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityGenevaUSA

Personalised recommendations