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International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 557–582 | Cite as

Ecology and Integrated Pest Management

  • J. C. Van Lenteren
  • W. A. Overholt
Article

Abstract

The struggle to control populations of organisms that feed on agricultural crops, livestock, and directly on humans is as old as recorded history, and will continue into the perceivable future. Only 30 years ago, the availability of relatively cheap and highly effective synthetic organic pesticides was thought to be the ultimate solution to pest populations. However, our naïveté regarding the ability of pest populations to rapidly adapt to simplistic man-induced selection pressures has become increasingly apparent, as have the detrimental impacts of pesticides on the environment. The evolution of the integrated pest management paradigm can be traced to these concerns, and it is now accepted that sustainable solutions to the management of pest populations will only be borne out of ap increased understanding of the functioning of ecosystems. Knowledge of the population dynamics, and underlying causes of density changes in pest populations, behavioural ecology, and population genetics of pests and natural enemies, are essential elements for designing appropriate biologically intensive strategies for pest management. Progress is being made, and several examples of innovative strategies and promising areas of research, are discussed. Future work must continue to be based on a solid foundation of ecological understanding, to avoid the pitfalls of simple opportunistic solutions.

Keywords

Insecta population dynamics population genetics behavioural ecology 

Résumé

La bataille contre les populations d’organismes vivant aux dépens des cultures, du bétail et directement des humains, est aussi vieille que l’histoire écrite, et se poursuivra encore dans un avenir prévisible. Il y a de cela 30 ans, on pensait que la disponibilité des pesticides organiques de synthèse relativement bon marché et réellement efficaces allait être la solution finale contre les populations des ravageurs. Cependant, notre naïveté concernant leur capacité à s’adapter rapidement aux pressions de selection simplistes induites par l’homme, est devenue de plus en plus apparente, tout comme le sont les impacts nuisibles des pesticides sur l’environnement L’évolution du paradigme de la lutte dirigée trouve ses origines dans ces préoccupations et il est maintenant acquis que des solutions durables pour la lutte dirigée contre des populations des ravageurs, devront reposer sur une compréhension accrue du fonctionnement des écosystèmes. La connaissance sur la dynamique des populations et des causes sous-jacentes des changements de densité des populations des ravageurs, leur écologie comportementale et leur génétique et leurs ennemis naturels sont des éléments essentiels pour la conception des stratégies de lutte intense qui soient biologiquement appropriées en lutte dirigée. Des progrés sont en train d’être accomplis et plusieurs exemples de stratégies innovatrices et des domaines prometteurs de recherche sont discutés. Le travail futur doit continuer à reposer sur une base solide de connaissances écologiques et éviter les pièges des solutions opportunistes faciles.

Mots Clés

Insecta dynamique des populations génétique des populations écologie comportementale 

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Van Lenteren
    • 1
  • W. A. Overholt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya

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