Advertisement

The Status of Tick Infestation of Livestock and Tick Control Methods in Kenya

  • J. P. O. Wamukoya
Field Situation Report

Abstract

In Kenya, there are at least seven distinct tick-borne diseases (the ileriosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, heartwater, Nairobisheepdisease, sweating sickness and erhlichiosis in dogs). Theileriosis causes major economic losses arising from deaths of infected cattle.

Control of these diseases is almost exclusively by the application of chemical acaricides to cattle. Use of acaricides is regulated and only those passing field tests are permitted to be marketed in Kenya. Field trials on immunization against East Coast fever (ECF) by infection and treatment are still continuing. Chemotherapy treatment is also available but quite expensive.

The Veterinary Department continuously evaluates acaricides which have been documented to have activity against ticks. These acaricides have been grouped into four groups ranging from organophosphorus compounds in Group I to synthetic pyrethroids in Group IV. To-date Groups III and IV acaricides are kept as reserve, although amitraz in Group III can be used on a limited scale on privately owned farms.

Key Words

Tick infestation livestock East Coast fever tick control acaricides 

Résumé

Il y a au Kenya au moins sept maladies transmettent par les tiques (cowdriosis, theileriosis, anaplasmose, babesiose, Nairobi sheep disease, erhlichiose canine). La theileriose cause des pertes économiques majeurs due à la mort du bétail infecté. Le contrôle des maladies est à peu près exclusivement fait par l’application des acaricides chimiques, sur le bétail. L’usage des acaricides est réglé et sauf les acaricides qui ont passé les tests sur le terrain sont authoriser d’être mis en vente au Kenya. Des essais sur le terrain sur l’immunisation contre la fièvre de la vallée du Rift (ECF) par infection et traitement sont toujours pour suivis. Le terrain ont chémiotherapique est aussi disponibles mais coûte relativement cher. Le service vétérinaire évalué d’une façon continue les acaricides ayant une activité, contre les tiques — les acaricides furent groupe dans 4 groupes allant des composées organo phosphore dans le groupe 1 au pyrethroids synthétiques dans le group IV. Jusqu’à ce jour, les acaricides de groupe III et IV sont réservés bien que amitrat appartenant au groupe III peuvent être utiliser à une échelle limitée dans des fermes privées.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous (1987) Livestock Research Component of the National Agriculture Research Project. Ministry of Livestock Development, Nairobi, Kenya, p. 164.Google Scholar
  2. Burnet (1961) The control of ticks on livestock. FAO Agricultural Series No. 54. p. 115.Google Scholar
  3. Davies F. G. (1978a) A survey of Nairobi sheep disease in sheep and goats, wild ruminants and rodents within Kenya. J. Hyg. Cambridge 81, 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies F. G. (1978b) Nairobi sheep disease in Kenya. The isolation of virus from sheep and goats, ticks and possible hosts. J. Hyg. Cambridge 81, 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dolan T. T. (1981) Progress in the chemotherapy of theileriosis. In Advances in the Control of Theileriosis (Edited by Irvin A. D., Cunningham M. P. and Young A. S.), pp. 186–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Muriithi I. E. (1984) Proceedings of the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. First Scientific conference on advancing agricultural production in Africa, p. 226.Google Scholar
  7. Musisi F. L. (1990) Methods currently used for the control of East Coast fever: Their validity and proposals for future control strategies. Parasitigai. 32, 15–22.Google Scholar
  8. Ong’are J. O. (1982) An analysis of the tick control project as a method for East Coast fever control in Kiambu. MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.Google Scholar
  9. Pratt D. J., Greenway S. and Gwynne M. D. (1966) A classification of East African rangeland with an appendix on terminology. J. Appl. Ecol. 3, 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pratt D. J. and Gwynne M. D. (1977) Rangeland Management and Ecology in East Africa. London, Hodder Stoughton p. 310.Google Scholar
  11. Radley D. E. (1981) Infection and treatment method of immunization against theileriosis. In Advances in the Control ofTheileriosis (Edited by Irvin A. D., Cunningham M. P. and Young A. S.), pp. 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rinkanya F. G. R. (1986) New tick laboratories at Veterinary Research Laboratory, Kabete. Kenya Vet. 10, 26.Google Scholar
  13. Rinkanya F. G. R. and Tatchell R. J. (1988) Evaluation of the efficacy of different pour-on formulations against cattle ticks in Kenya. Trop. Pest Manage. 34, 324–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rinkanya F. G. R., Kiniiya H. S. N. and Muraguri G. (1992) Evaluation of the efficacy of Ectopor pour-on against ticks infecting camels in Kenya. Trop. Pest Manage. 38 (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Tatchell R. J., Chimwani D., Chirchir S. J., Ong’are J. O., Mwangi E. and Rinkanya F. G. R. (1986) Study of the justification for intensive tick control in Kenyan rangelands. Vet. Record, pp. 401–403.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. O. Wamukoya
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of Livestock DevelopmentVeterinary ServicesNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations