Advertisement

A Review of the Development and Survival of Ticks in Tropical Africa

  • Daniel K. Punyua
Tick Ecology and Modelling

Abstract

Tropical African ticks are found on their hosts throughout the year, but at varying infestation levels. These population changes, for most of the time, have been associated with climatic changes. Their development is inversely related to temperature. Several workers reported that development failed for a number of tick species at temperatures below 15°C, suggesting a possible lower temperature threshold for tick development. The upper development limit for most of the tropical rhipicephalids appear to be 37°C.

Ticks are particularly susceptible to attack during lethargic pre-moulting and the weak post-moulting period. Many biological features enable them, however, to survive especially well. They lay numerous eggs and withstand a comparatively wide temperature and humidity range with greater ease. They survive for months or years without food.

Their degree of host specificity varies from genus to genus or within subgroups of various genera. The requirement of two or more kinds of hosts often with divergent habits, limits their distribution to certain faunal areas.

This paper reviews our current knowledge on development and survival of ixodid ticks under tropical field conditions including some laboratory studies.

Key Words

Development survival ticks tropical Africa Ixodidae natural conditions laboratory conditions 

Résumé

Dans les pays tropicaux, les tiques sont présentés toute l’année sur leurs hôtes, a des degrés d’infestation variables. Tres souvent ces variations en densité de la population des tiques sont liées aux fluctuations climatiques de même que l’accroissement de la population est inversement proportionnelle a la température. Certains auteurs rapportent qu’il y a arrêt de developpement chez certaines espèces de tiques, a des températures de moins de 15°C, et suggèrent l’existence d’une temperature minimum seuil indispensable au developpement des tiques. La temperature extreme compatible au developpement des tiques du genre Rhipicephalus se trouve entre de 37°C.

Les tiques sont particulièrement sensibles aux attaques des predateurs pendant la période de lethargie precèdant et succédant la mue.

Plusieurs charactéristiques biologiques leur permettent de bien survivre. Elles pondent de tres nombreux oeufs et supportent tres aisement de grandes gammes de temperature et d’humidite. Elles vivent plusieurs mois voire années sans s’alimenter. La relation hôte-parasite varie de genre et genre et meme au sein des sous groupes appartenant a différents genres.

L’existence de deux ou plusieurs try pes d’hôtes ayant très souvent des comportements différents, limite leur distribution a la faune de certaines régions.

L’objectif de cette étude est de procéder a une revûe de l’état des connaissances actuelles sur le developpement et la survie des tiques ixodides dans les conditions naturelles en milieu tropical de même que celles de laboratoire.

Mots Clés

Développement survie tiques afrique tropicale Ixodidae conditions naturelles conditions de laboratoire 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aeschlimann A. (1967) Biologie et ecologie des tiques (Ixodidae) de Côte d’Ivoire. Acta Trop. 24, 281–405.Google Scholar
  2. Ammah-Attoh V. (1966) Reproduction in the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch, 1844 under laboratory conditions, with notes on mating and insemination. Ghana J. Sci. 6, 9–14.Google Scholar
  3. Balashov Yu S. (1984) Interaction between bloodsucking arthropods and their hosts and its influence onvectorpotential. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29, 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Branagan D. (1973a) The development periods of the ixodid tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neum. under laboratory conditions. Bull. entomol. Res. 63, 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branagan D. (1973b) Observations on the development and survival of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, 1901 under quasi-natural conditions in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 5, 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Centurier C. and Kilma R. (1978) Ein Beitrag Zur Kenntis der Biologie von Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius 1794). Z. Angew. Entomol. 87, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiera J. W. and Punyua D. K. (1990) Survival of unfed Rhipicephalus appendicular (Acarina: Ixodidae) in relation to host resistance and environmental factors in Kenya. Bull. entomol. Res. 80, 251–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dipeolu O. O. (1975) Survey of tick infestation in the trade cattle, sheep and goats in Nigeria. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afric. 23, 165–172.Google Scholar
  9. Dipeolu O. O. (1983) Studies on ticks of veterinary importance in Nigeria. VI. Comparison of oviposition and the hatching of eggs of Hyalomma species. Vet. Parasitol. 13, 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dipeolu O. O. (1984a) Studies on ticks of veterinary importance in Nigeria XVI. The oviposition pattern of engorged Boophilus and Hyalomma species when subjected in the laboratory to artificially created factors. Acarologia 25, 231–240.Google Scholar
  11. Dipeolu O.O. (1984b) Development of ixodid ticks under natural conditions in Nigeria. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 16, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dipeolu O. O. (1985) Studies on ticks of veterinary importance in Nigeria XII. Oviposition and eclosion in five species of ixodid ticks in contrasting habitats. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 1, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dipeolu O. O. and Ogunji F. O. (1977) Studies on ticks of veterinary importance in Nigeria. I. On the development of the ixodid ticks Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius 1794 and Hyalomma rufipes Koch 1844 under quasi -natural conditions in Nigeria. J. Pharm. Med. Sci. 1, 245–248.Google Scholar
  14. Elbl A. (1977) Ixodid ticks (Acarina:Ixodidae) of Central Africa. Vol. V. The larval and nymphal stages of the more important species of the genus Amblyomma Koch 1844. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent. Tervuren, Belg. Ser 8, Sci. Zool. No.222.Google Scholar
  15. Elbl A. and Anastos G. (1966) Ixodid ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of Central Africa. Vol. IV. Genera Aponomma Neumann, 1899, Boophilus Curtice, 1891, Dermacentor Koch, 1844, Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844, Hyalomma Koch, 1844, and Rhipicentor Nuttall and Warburton 1908, List and Bibliography. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr. Tervuren Belg. Ser. 8 Sci. Zool. No. 148.Google Scholar
  16. Garris G. I. (1984) Colonization and life cycle of Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory in Puerto Rico. J. Med. Entomol. 21, 86–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoogstraal H. (1956) African Ixodoidea. I. Ticks of the Sudan (with special reference to Equatoria Province and with preliminary reviews of genera Boophilus, Margaropus and Hyalomma). Res. Rep. N.M. 005 050. 29.07. US Govt. Dept. of Navy, Bur. Med. Surg. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Iwuala M. O. E. and Okpala I. (1977) Studies on oviposition and egg-hatching of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabr.) and Boophilus annulatus (Say) (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae). Folia Parasitol. 24, 269–275.Google Scholar
  19. Knight M. M., Norval R. A. I. and Rechav Y. (1978) The life cycle of the tick Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch (Acarina: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions. J. Parasitol. 44, 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lees A. D. (1946) The water balance in Ixodes ricinus L. and certain other species of ticks. Parasitology, 37, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewis E. A. (1932) Some tick investigations in Kenya colony. Parasitology 24, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nelson W. A., Keirans J. E., Bell J. F., and Clifford C. M. (1975) Host ecto-parasite relationships. J. Med. Entomol. 12, 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nuttall G. H. F. (1911) On the adaptation of ticks to the habits of their hosts. Parasitology 4, 45–67.Google Scholar
  24. Nuttall G. H. F. (1913) Observations on the biology of Ixodidae. Part I. Parasitology 6, 68–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pegram R. G., Mwase E. T., Zivkovik D. and Jongejan F. (1988) Morphogenic diapause in Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae). Med. Vet. Entomol. 2, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Punyua D. K. (1984) Development periods of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) under field conditions. Insect Sci. Applic. 5, 247–250.Google Scholar
  27. Punyua D. K. (1985) Longevity of hungry Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) under field conditions at Muguga, Kenya. Environ. Entomol. 14, 392–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Punyua D. K., Latif A. A., Nokoe S. and Capstick P. B. (1991) Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on zebu cattle in Western Kenya: Seasonal dynamics of four species of ticks on traditionally managed cattle. J. Med. Entomol. 28, 630–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers D. J. and Randolph S. E. (1985) Population ecology of tsetse. Rev. Entomol. 30, 197–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Santos Dias J. A. T. (1948) Estudo sobre a biologia do Amblyomma tholoni Neumann, 1899. Doc. Mocambique 54, 127–139.Google Scholar
  31. Santos Dias J. A. T. (1949) Mais urn ixodideo do genero Amblyomma para a fauna de Mocambique A. nuttalli Donitz, 1909, a carraca das tartarugas. Doc. Mocambique 59, 51–75.Google Scholar
  32. Short N. J., Floyd R. B., Norval R. A. and Sutherst R. W. (1989a) Development rates, fecundity and survival of developmental stages of the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Boophilus decoloratus and B. microplus under field conditions in Zimbabwe. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 6, 123–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Short N. J., Floyd R. B., Norval R. A. I. and Sutherst R. W. (1989b) Survival and behaviour of unfed stages of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Boophilus decoloratus and B. microplus under field conditions in Zimbabwe. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 6, 215–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sutherst R. W., Warton R. H. and Utech K. B. W. (1978) Guide to studies on tick ecology. Div. Entomology. CSIRO, Aust. Tech. Pap. No. 14.Google Scholar
  35. Theiler G. (1943) Notes on the Ticks of Domestic Stock from Portuguese East Africa Estac. Anti-Malarica, Lourenco Marques.Google Scholar
  36. Theiler G., Walker J. B. and Wiley A. J. (1956) Ticks in the South African Zoological Survey collection. Part VIII. Two East African ticks. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 27, 83–99.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson S. G. (1950) A check-list and host-list of ixodoidea found in Nyasaland, with descriptions and biological notes on some of the rhipicephalids. Bull. entomol. Res. 41, 415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel K. Punyua
    • 1
  1. 1.The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations