Advertisement

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 7, Issue 6, pp 741–745 | Cite as

The Response of Trypanosome-Infected Water Buffaloes and Cattle in Different Areas of Fly Challenge To Normal Therapeutic Doses of Trypanocidal Drugs

  • B. C. Njau
  • P. A. Mkonyi
  • K. A. M. Lekaki
Research Article

Abstract

Laboratory examination of blood smears from water buffaloes in an area of high fly challenge indicated an infection rate of 51.11 % caused by both Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax. A similar study in cattle raised in a low fly challenge area showed an infection rate of 22.73% caused by T. congolense only. Diminazene aceturate administered as a single dose at 3.5 mg/kg body weight cured the infection in cattle, while a similar dose at 7 mg/kg body weight failed to cure the water buffaloes. Cattle were further protected by a single dose of isometamidium chloride administered at 0.5 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks of this study. On the other hand, isometamidium chloride administered at 1 mg/kg body weight cured transiently 90% of the infected water buffaloes and 10% persisted with a T. congolense infection. It was concluded that the lower dose rates approved by the manufacturers for the two trypanocides treated adequately infected cattle in a low challenge area, but such results were not achieved with the higher dose rates for infected water buffaloes in a high fly challenge area.

Key Words

Trypanosomiasis fly challenge water buffaloes cattle diminazene isometamidium drug doses 

Résumé

L’examen de frottis sanguins de buffles (Bubalus bubalus) provenant d’une région fortement infestée de mouches tsé-tsé indique un taux d’infection de 51.11%, dû à Trypanosoma congolense et T. vivax. Une étude similaire concernant les vaches dans une zone peu infestée montre un taux d’infection de 22.73%, causé par T. congolense uniquement. De l’acéturate de diminazene administré en une dose de 3.5 mg/kg de poids vif soigne l’infection des vaches, alors que les buffles ne sont pas soignés par une dose de 7 mg/kg. Les vaches ont ensuite été protégées pendant 6 semaines grâce à une dose unique de 0.5 mg/kg de chlorure d’isométamidium, tandis que cette même drogue administrée à raison de 1 mg/kg ne soignait transitoirement que 90% des buffles, les 10% restant présentant une infection à T. congolense. On peut donc en conclure que les faibles doses recommandées par les fabricants pour chaque trypanocides sont adaptées à des vaches exposés à de faibles infestations, mais non à des buffles vivant dans des zones lourdement infestées par les glossines.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agu W. E. (1984) The effect of isometamidium chloride on Trypanosoma vivax occurring within the insect vector, Glossina. Z. Parasitenkd. 70, 431–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali B. H., Hassan T. and Malik K. H. (1985) Clinical evaluation of samorin in Trypanosoma evansi infection in Cameius dromedarius. J. Vet. Pharmac. Therm. 8, 208–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon (1974) FAO (WHO Joint Meeting of Investigations on the Immunology of East Coast Fever. Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  4. Anon (1982) Annual Report, Livestock Diseases Diagnosis 1982-83. Central Veterinary Laboratory, Dar es Salaam.Google Scholar
  5. Boid R., Amin E. A. El, Mhamoud M. M. and Luckins A. G. (1981) Trypanosoma evansi infections and antibodies in goats, sheep and camels in Sudan. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 13, 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ford J. and Blaser E. (1971) Some aspects of cattle raising under prophylactic treatment against trypanosomiasis on Mkwaja Ranch, Tanzania. Acta trop. 28, 69–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hassanali A., McDowell P. G., Owaga M. L. A. and Saini R. K. (1986). Identification of tsetse fly attractants from excretory products of wild host animal, Syncerus caffer. Insect Sci. Applic. 7, 5–9.Google Scholar
  8. Hoare C. A. (1957) The spread of African trypanosomes beyond their natural range. Z. Tropenmed: Parasit. 8, 157–161.Google Scholar
  9. Hoare C. A. (1970) The mammalian trypanosomiasis of Africa: diagnosis. In The African Trypanosomiases (Edited by Mulligan H. W.), p. 14. (George) Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  10. Hoeve K. van and Cunningham M. P. (1964) Prophylactic activity of Berenil against trypanosomiasis in treated cattle. Vet. Rec. 76, 260.Google Scholar
  11. Katyega P. M. J. (1982) Performance of the Egyptian water buffaloes at Mpwapwa, Tanzania. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr. 30, 297–303.Google Scholar
  12. Kaw M. L. and Verma B. B. (1984) Effect of isometamidium chloride (Samorin, M & B) against experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection (Surra) in calves. Indian vet. J. 61, 954–957.Google Scholar
  13. Kupper W. and Wolters M. (1981) Observations on drug resistance of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax in cattle at a feedlot in Northern Ivory Coast. Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 34, 203–205.Google Scholar
  14. Lohr K. F., Pohlpark S., Srikitjakan L., Thaboran P., Bettermann G. and Staak C. (1985) Trypanosoma evansi infection in buffaloes in North Eastern Thailand. I. Field investigation. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 17, 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Njau B. C., Mkonyi P. A. and Kundy D. J. (1981) Berenil resistant Trypanosoma congolense isolated from naturally infected goats in Tanga region, Tanzania, In International Scientific Conference on Trypanosomiasis Research and Control, 17th Meeting (Arusha), pp. 289–298.Google Scholar
  16. Pinder M. and Authie E. (1984) The appearance of iso-metamidium resistant Trypanosoma congolense in West Africa. Acta trop. 41, 247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Staak C. (1976) Complement fixation test in Trypanosoma vivax infections. Vet. Rec. 99, 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Welde B. T. and Chumo D. A. (1983) Persistence of Berenil in cattle. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 15, 149–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Whitelaw D. D., Moulton J. E., Morrison W. I. and Murray M. (1985) Central nervous system involvement in goats undergoing primary infection with Trypanosoma brucei and relapse after chemotherapy. Parasitology 90, 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wiessenhutter E. (1975) Research into the relative importance of Tabanidae (Diptera) in mechanical disease transmission. III Epidemiology of anaplasmosis in a Dares-Salaam dairy farm. Trop. Anim. Hlth Prod. 7, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Woo P. K. (1969) The hematocrit centrifugation technique for the detection of trypanosomiasis in blood. Can. J. Zool. 47, 921–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. C. Njau
    • 1
  • P. A. Mkonyi
    • 1
  • K. A. M. Lekaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Animal Diseases Research InstituteDar es SalaamTanzania

Personalised recommendations