Advertisement

Aspects of the Ecology and Epizootiological/Epidemiological Importance of Glossina Species Inhabiting a Peridomestic Agroecosystem in the Nsukka Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

  • L. Chuka Madubunyi
Research Article

Abstract

A Glossina community inhabiting a peridomestic agroecosystem encircling Orie-Orba in the Nsukka area was investigated with unbaited biconical traps for species composition, population characteristics and trypanosome infections. Only Glossina tachinoides Westwood and G. palpalis (Robineau—Desvoidy) were encountered, the former comprising over 99% of all 2877 tsetse caught. G. tachinoldes occurred at a weekly mean apparent density of 8.41 ± 0.98/trap which fluctuated in a manner characterized by decrease in the wet season and increase in the dry season. Traps caught males and females in equal proportions during the wet season but during the dry season males outnumbered females in the monthly trap catches. During either season, the female samples comprised mostly old flies. Pregnancy rate was high during both seasons and abortion was the only reproductive abnormality manifested. The size of mature eggs in utero varied in a manner suggesting the occurrence of nutritional stress during both seasons. Approximately 5% of 347 G. tachuinoides examined for trypanosomes were infected with procyclic trypanosomes only.

These observations, which have formed the basis of further investigations now in progress, are discussed in the light of earlier studies at this location and elsewhere, and in the context of certain peculiarities of intensively cropped agroecosystems.

Key Words

Glossina spp tsetse ecology epizootiological/epidemiological importance peridomestic agroecosystems Nigeria 

Résumé

Nous avons examiné une communauté de glossines prises, à l’aide de filets bi-coniques sans appats, aux environs d’Orie-Orba, un agro-écosystème péridomestique près de Nsukka. Le but était d’en préciser la composition, les particularités et de voir s’il y aa des infections de trypanosome. Nous n’avons distinguée que les espèces dites Glossina tachinoides Westwood et G. palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy). Les premières représent a ient 99% des 2.877 tsé-tsé prises. La moyenne hebdomadaire de la densité aparente des G. tachinoides était de 8,41 ± 0,98 par filet, caractérisée par une décroissance toute la saison des pluies, alors qu’elle allait en croissant pendant la saison sèche. La composition des prises, quant au sexe, était bien proportionnée pendant la saison des pluies, mais pendant la saison sèche, les males surpassaient en nombre les femelles dans les prises mensuelles. Les échantillons des femelles pendant les deux saisons consistaient pour la plupart en de vieilles mouches. Le taux de gestation s’est révélé élevé et l’avortemant a été la seule anomalie reproductive observée. Leurs oeufs in utero variaient en grosseur de façon à faire croire à un stress de nutrition pendant la saison pluviale ainsi que pendant la saison sèche. A peu près 5% des 347 G. tachinoides examinées n’étaient atteintes que de trypansomes procycliques.

Les observations, point de départ pour d’autres études en cours, nous les avons discutées à la lumière d’études précédentes faites dans cette région et ailleurs, aussi bien que dans le contexte de certaines particularités des agro-écosystèmes caractérisés par une cultivation ion intensive.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldry D. A. T. (1964) Observations on a close association between Glossina tachinoides and domestic pigs near Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria. II—Ecology and trypanosome infection rates in G. tachinoides. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 58, 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldry D. A. T. (1966a) On the distribution of Glossina tachinoides in West Africa—1. The distribution of Glossina tachinoides in southern Nigeria. In International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research. Eleventh Meeting, Nairobi, 1966. OUA/STRG Publication No. 100, pp. 95–102.Google Scholar
  3. Baldry D. A. T. (1966b) Lantana Camara L. as a breeding site for Glossina tachinoides Westwood in south-eastern Nigeria. In International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiosis Research. Eleventh Meeting, Nairobi 1966. OUA/STRC Publication No. 100, pp. 91–93.Google Scholar
  4. Baldry D. A. T. (1968) Observations on the peri-domestic breeding behaviour and resting sites of Glossina tachinoides Westwood near Nsukka, East Central State, Nigeria. Bull. ent. 59, 585–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldry D. A. T. (1969a) Variations in the ecology of Glossina sp. with special reference to Nigerian populations of Glossina tachinoides. Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 40, 859–869.Google Scholar
  6. Baldry D. A. T. (1969b) The epidemiological significance of recent observations in Nigeria on the ecology of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Deptera, Muscidae). Bull. ent. Soc. Nigeria 2, 34–38.Google Scholar
  7. Baldry D. A. T. (1980) Local distribution and ecology of Glossina palpalis and Glossina tachinoides in forest foci of West Africa human trypanosomiasis, with special reference to associations between peridomestic tsetse and their hosts. Insect Sci. Applic. 1, 85–93.Google Scholar
  8. Challier A. (1965) Amelioration de la methode de determination de l’age physiologique des glossines. Etudes faites sur Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplanck, 1949. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 57, 985–991.Google Scholar
  9. Challier A. (1982) The ecology of tsetse (Glosina spp.) (Diptera, Glossinidae): A review (1970–1981). Insect Sci. Applic. 3, 97–143.Google Scholar
  10. Challier A., Eyraud M., Lafaye A. and Laveissiere C. (1977) Amelioration du rendement du piege biconique pour glossines (Diptera, Glossinidae) par l’emploi d’un cone inferieur bleu. Cah. ORSTOM Sér. ent. méd. Parasit. XV, 283–286.Google Scholar
  11. Challier A. and Gouteaux J. P. (1980) Ecology and epidemiological importance of Glossina palpalis in the Ivory Coast Forest zone. Insect Sci. Applic. 1, 77–83.Google Scholar
  12. Eouzan J. P. and Ferrara L. (1978) Comportment peridomestique de Glossina palopalis palpalis (R-D) dans un foyer de maladie du sommeil au Cameroun. Cah. ORSTOM Sér. ent. méd. Parasit. 16, 237–242.Google Scholar
  13. Ford J. (1971) The Role of the Trypanosomes in African Ecology: A Study of the Teste Fly Problem. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  14. Glasgow J. P. (1963) The Distribution and Abundance of Tsete. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. Gouteux J. P. (1982) Analyse des groupes d’age physiologique des femelles de glossines. Calcul de la courbe de survie, du faux de mortalite, des ages maximal et moyen. Cah. ORSTOM Sér ent. méd. 20, 189–197.Google Scholar
  16. Jordan A. M., Lee-Jones F. and Weitz B. (1961) The natural hosts of tsetse flies in the forest belt of Nigeria and thi Southern Cameroons. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 55 167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Killick-Kendrick R. and Godfrey D. G. (1963) Observation on a close association between Glossina tachinoides and domestic pigs near Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria 1—Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei infections in the pig. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 57, 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lloyd L. and Johnson W. B. (1924) The trypanosomi infections of tsetse flies in Northern Nigeria and a new method of estimation. Bull. ent. Res. 14, 265–288.Google Scholar
  19. Madubunyi L. C. (1974) Morphometric indices of nutritional state in a natural population of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood. J. Anim ecol. 43, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madubunyi L. C. (1975) A technique for detecting abortion in wild populations of Glossina species. In sterility Principle for Insect Control ro Eradication. Proceedings of Symposium on the Sterility Principle for Insect Control or Eradication, Jointly Organized by The IAEA and FAO and held in Innsbruck 22–26 July 1974, pp. 477–485. IAEA, Vienna.Google Scholar
  21. Mehlitz D., Zillmann U. and Godfrey D. G. (1981) Recenl investigation on the animal reservoir of Gambiense sleeping sickness. In International Scientific Council for tryopanasomiasis research. Seventeenth Meeting, Arusha (Tanzania), 1981. OAU/STRC Publication No. 112, pp. 157–162.Google Scholar
  22. Mellanby K. (1937) Experimental work on reproduction in the tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis. Parasitology 29, 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rogers D. J. and Randolph S. E. (1984) Local variation in the population dynamics of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau—Desvoidy) (diptera: Glossinidae). 1. Natural population regulation. Bull. ent. Res. 4, 403–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ryan L. (1981) Glossina (Dipetra: Glossinidae) population growth rates. Bull. ent. Res. 71, 519–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saunders D. S. (1960) The ovulation cycle in Glossina morsitans Westwood (Diptera, Muscidae) and a possible method of age determination for female tsetse flies by examination of their ovaries. Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 112, 221–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saunders D. S. (1967) Survival and reproduction in a natural population of the tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy). Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 42, 129–137.Google Scholar
  27. Saunders D. S. and Phelps R. J. (1970) Reproduction of Glossina: Breeding sites. In The African Trypanosomiasis, pp. 327–374. Allen & Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  28. Steel R. G. D. and Torrie J. H. (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Taylor P. (1979) The construction of a life table for Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera, Glossinidae) from seasonal age-measurements of a wild population. Bull. ent Res. 69, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Turner D. A. (1980) Tsetse ecological studies in Niger and Mozambique—. Population sampling. Insect Sci. Applic. 1, 9–13.Google Scholar
  31. Willet K. C. (1960) West African Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research Report, 1959. Harrison, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Chuka Madubunyi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

Personalised recommendations