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Effect of Plant Phenology and Related Factors on Insect Pest Infestations in Arboreum and Hirsutum Cotton Varieties

  • A. K. Chakravarthy
  • A. S. Sidhu
  • Joginder Singh
Research Article

Abstract

Phenology of Arboreum varieties: G 27, LD 133 and LD 230 differed from Hirsutum, F 414 under unsprayed conditions in Ludhiana. Protection to Arboreum varieties at seedling stage against grasshopper and to bolls formed between 1 August to 15 September against bollworm damage was found necessary. In Hirsutum variety, F 414 bolls formed between 16 August to 15 September needed maximum protection from bollworm damage.

At vegetative phase, jassid population was positively correlated with the leaf size and negatively with number of gossypol glands and leaf thickness, and that of whitefly was positively correlated with number of leaves per plant. Six plant morphological characters: number of leaves, squares, bolls, vegetative and reproductive branches and shoot pubescence-affected bollworm infestation significantly and the effect was related to and varied with the age of the plant. Anthocyanin pigment was not detected in any plant part in the four cotton varieties. At vegetative and reproductive phases, gossypol, total phenols, condensed tannins, ieuco-anthocyanins and flavenols in leaf, shoot and boll per se did not influence insect pest infestations under field conditions. The parasite population was not related to pest infestations throughout the plant growth. Predation rates, however, on pest populations seemed to be considerable. Sclereids and lignified cells affected penetration of first instar Earias vittella larvae into bolls.

Key Words

Plant phenology biophysical and biochemical plant characters pest infestations timing of control operations 

Résumé

A Ludhiana, la phénologie des variétés de VArboreum G 27, LD 133 et LD 230 différait de celle de la variété Hirsitum F 414 dans des conditions de non pulvérisation des plantes. Il a été nécessaire de protéger les variétés d’arboreum au stade de germination contre la sauterelle. On a aussi protégé les graines formées entre le 1 août et le 15 septembre contre les vers. Dans la variété Hirsitum F 414 les graines formées entre le 16 août et le 15 septembre ont requis une protection maximale contre les attaques des vers.

Au stade végétatif, une corrélation positive a été établie entre la population des jassidés et les dimensions de la feuille. Une corrélation négative fut trouvée entre la même population de jassidés et le nombre de glandes de gossypol et l’épaisseur de la feuille. Entre la population de whitefly et le nombre de feuilles par plante, la corrélation était positive. Six charactères morphologiques de la plante, le nombre de feuilles, squares, graines, branches végétatives et reproductrives et la pubéscence des pousses ont affecté sensiblement l’infestation causée par les vers et l’effet était lié à l’âge de la plante et variait avec celle-ci. Dans les quatre variétés du cotton, aucune partie de la plante ne contenait de pigment d’anthocyanine. Aux stades reproductifs et végétatifs le gossypol, les phénols, les tannines condensés, les leuco- anthocyanines et les flavénols dans la feuille, la pousse et la graine n’ont pas influé sur l’infestation des plantes par les insectes dans les champs d’expérimentation. La population des parasites n’avait aucun rapport avec l’infestation causée par les insectes durant la croissance de la plante. Cependant l’effet des prédateurs sur les populations des insectes semblait considérable. Les scléroides et les cellules lignifiées affectaient la pénétration des larves Earias vittella dans les graines.

Mots Clefs

Phénologie des plantes variétés de cotton anthocyanine gossypol tannines phénols flavénols effet des prédateurs 

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Copyright information

© ICIPE 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Chakravarthy
    • 1
  • A. S. Sidhu
    • 1
  • Joginder Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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