Advertisement

International Journal of Tropical Insect Science

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 705–710 | Cite as

Borer Damage and Estimation of Loss Caused by Sugar-Cane Stem-Borers in Southern Ghana

  • M. A. Sampson
  • R. Kumar
Article

Abstract

Studies on damage by larvae of Eldana saccharina Walker, Chilo zacconius Bleszynski and Sesamia spp. to sugar-cane stands revealed a high degree of correlation between internode damage and stalk damage as well as between internode damage and sugar content of the canes. For every 1% increase in stalk damage there was a corresponding increase of 0.214% in the internode damage. The distribution of larvae inside the internodes was found to depend on the level of infestation. At low field infestation level (below 25 larvae per 100 canes) the distribution was random. As the level of infestation increases, the distribution becomes more aggregated. The distribution of damage in the sugar-cane field was found to depend on the overall stalk damage. The distribution tends to be more contagious when field level of stalk damage was less than 45%. The damage became evenly distributed when stalk damage rose above 60%. An estimation of average loss of sugar caused by stem-borers to the variety NCO 376 (at the field damage rate of 8.6, 10.6 and 3.1% damage for bottom, middle and top parts respectively of the cane) was U.S.S332.10 per ha of field.

Key Words

Sugar-cane pest borer larvae damage estimation sucrose content Ghana 

Résumé

Une etude des extraits de travaux sur le dégât causé par des larves d’ Eldana saccharina Walker, Chilo zacconius Bleszynski et Sesamia spp. aux plantes de canne à sucre a révélé un degré élevé de corrélation entre d’ une part le dommage à l’entre-noeud et celui du trognon, et d’autre part le dommage à l’entre-noeud et le contenu sucrier des cannes. A chaque augementation d’un pourcent de dommage au trognon, correspondait une augmentation de 0,214% de dommage à l’entrenoeud. Il’s est révélé que la répartition des larves au long des entre-noeuds dépendait du niveau d’ infestation de ceux-ci. Lorsque le nivesu d’ infestation du champ est bas (c’est-à-dire au-dessous de 25 larves sur 100 cannes) la répartition des larves n’est pas régulière. Par contre, lorsque le niveau d’ infestation s’ accroît, la répartition des larves devient plus agrégée. On constate que l’ampleur du dégât dans le champ de canne à sucre dépend de 1’ ensemble des dommages causés aux trognons. La répartition se révèle plus contagieuse lorsque le taux du dégât est inférieur à 45%. Lorsque le dégât aux trognons atteignait plus de 60%, il s’est montre régulièrement réparti. Une estimation de la perte de sucre due aux fouisseurs à tige de la variété NCO 376 (à un taux de destruction du champ, équivalent à 8,6, 10,6 et 3, 1% du bas, du milieu et du haut de la canne respectivement) s’élevait à $312, 8 (dollars) par hectare de champ.

Mot Cléfs

Canne à sucre peste fouisseur larve dégât (ou dommage) estimation contenu sucrier le Ghana 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bangdiwala I. S. and Martorell L. F. (1954) Correlation between stalk and joint infestation by sugarcane moth borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 8, 593–601.Google Scholar
  2. Bangdiwala I.S., Martorell L. F., Medina-Gaud S. and Miret A. C. (1967) Further studies in correlation between stalk and joint infestation by sugar cane moth, borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), in Puerto Rico. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 12, 1373–1382.Google Scholar
  3. Bates J. F. (1954) The status of moth-borer in British Guiana. Proc. Br. W. Indies Sugar Technol. 1954, 126–136.Google Scholar
  4. Doss S. V. J. (1956) Incidence of sugarcane borers in Nellikuppam factory zone, South Arcot, Madras State, Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 9, 880–985.Google Scholar
  5. Girling D. J. (1978) The distribution and biology of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its relationship to other stem borers in Uganda. Bull. ent. Res. 68, 471–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grogan H. L. (1954) Factory losses of sugar as the result of borer attack. Proc. Br. W. Indies Sugar Technol 1944, 74–77.Google Scholar
  7. Hinds W. E. and Ostenberger B. A. (1933) Sugarcane borer effect upon the value of seed cane. A preliminary report. J. econ. Eni. 26, 972–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holloway T. E. and Haley W. E. (1928) A cooperative estimate of the loss caused by the sugarcane borer. J. econ. Ent. 21, 852–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holloway T. E., Loftin V. C. and Heinrich C. (1928) The sugarcane borer in the United States. Techn. Bull. U.S. Dept Agric. 41, 1–76.Google Scholar
  10. Manser P. D. (1959) The small moth borer and red rot in sugarcane in Jamaica. Jam. Ass. Sugar Technol. J. 22, 17–22.Google Scholar
  11. Mathes R. and Charpentier L. J. (1954) A method for determining losses caused by the sugarcane borer. Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 8, 614–616.Google Scholar
  12. Rao D. V. S. and Rao C. K. (1961) Preliminary studies on verietal resistance of sugarcane to infestation by early shoot borer, Chilotraea infuscatella Snell. Andhra agric. J. 8, 140–146.Google Scholar
  13. Ruinard J. (1958) Investigations into bionomics, economic importance and possibilities of control of the sugarcane stalk borers in Java (in Dutch). Wageningen, Proefschr. Landbouwhogesch.Google Scholar
  14. Salt G. (1926) Report on sugarcane borers at Soledad, Cuba, Contr. Harv. Inst. trop. Biol. Med. 3, 9–62.Google Scholar
  15. Sampson M. A. (1982) The biology of the lepidoterous stemborers on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Ghana. Ph.D. thesis. University of Ghana, Legon.Google Scholar
  16. Sampson M. A. and Kumar R. (1983) Population dynamics of the stem borer complex on sugarcane in southern Ghana. Insect Sei. Applic. 4, 25–32.Google Scholar
  17. Sampson M. A. and Kumar R. (1985) Life history, development and behaviour of Eldana saccharina Walker on sugar-cane in southern Ghana. Insect Sei. Applic. 6, 135–143.Google Scholar
  18. Valsechi O., Gomes F. P., De Oliveira E. R. and Gallo D. (1960) The correlation between number of sugarcane internodes externally perforated and the number internally damaged by the borer (Diatraea saccharalis) (in Portugese). An. Esc. Sup. agric. Queiroz. 17, 293–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Waiyaki J. N. (1971) The biology and control of the principal lepidoterous borers associated with sugarcane at the Tanganyika Planting Company, Arusha-Chini. Unpublished report, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  20. Williams J. R., Metacalfe R. R., Mungomery R. W. and Mathes R. (1969) (Eds) Pest of Sugarcane, pp. 64 and 70. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICIPE 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Sampson
    • 1
  • R. Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)NairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences, Rivers StateUniversity of Science and TechnologyPort HarcourtNigeria

Personalised recommendations