Suspected Vectors of Lizard Leishmaniasis in Kenya and Their Possible Role in Partial Immunization of the Human Population Against Leishmania Donovani in Kala-Azar Endemic Areas
Various species of sandflies were collected from outdoor natural resting sites from three districts in Kenya which are endemic for kala-azar (Machakos, West Pokot and Baringo). Their blood-meals were analysed to find out host preferences. Female fed-flies were dissected for parasitological investigation. Lizards from these areas were also trapped and blood and internal organs were examined and cultured for isolation of leishmania parasites. Only the lizards obtained from West Pokot and Baringo revealed leishmania parasites in cultures. Bloodmeal analysis showed that Phlebotomus anten-natus, P. bedfordi, P. schwetzi, P. africanus, P. martini, P. affinis and P. rodhaini fed on reptiles. Additionally, promastigotes were seen and isolated from these sandfly species. The disease incidence appears to be less in areas where leishmania parasites were encountered both in lizards and the sandflies in the same locality.
Key WordsKala-azar lizard leishmania promastigotes Phlebotomus mammalian leishmania cross immunity bloodmeal analysis L. adleri L. tropica immunity L. donovani
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