Full scan MS in comprehensive qualitative and quantitative residue analysis in food and feed matrices: How much resolving power is required?
- First Online:
In LC full scan based MS screening methods correct mass assignment is essential. Parameters affecting the accuracy of mass assignment, i.e., analyte concentration, complexity of the matrix, and resolving power, were studied using typical examples from the field of residue and contaminant analysis in food and feed. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing samples of honey and animal feed, spiked with 151 pesticides, veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, and plant toxins at levels ranging from 10 to 250 ng/g. Analyses were performed using a single stage Orbitrap with resolving power settings varying from 10,000 to 100,000 (FWHM). For consistent and reliable mass assignment (<2 ppm) of analytes at low levels in complex matrices, a high resolving power (≥50,000) was found to be required. At lower resolving power settings, the error in the assignment of mass increased due to the coelution of analytes with interferences at the same nominal mass. This negatively affected selectivity and quantitative performance due to the inability to use the required narrow mass-extraction windows. In the case of the less complex honey matrix, a resolving power of 25,000 was generally sufficient to obtain a mass assignment error close to the typical instrument mass accuracy (≤2 ppm) down to low concentration levels of 10 ng/g.
- 1.Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Official Journal of the European Union. 2005, 16(3), L 70/1.Google Scholar
- 2.USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, maximum residue limit database, http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/MRL.asp January, 2009.Google Scholar
- 3.Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, on undesirable substances in animal feed. Official Journal of the European Communities 2002, 30(5), L 140/10.Google Scholar
- 4.Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 2006, 20(2), L 264/5.Google Scholar
- 5.Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2377/90 of 26 June 1990 laying down a Community procedure for the establishment of maximum residue limits of veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin. Official Journal of the European Communities. 1990, 18, L 224/1.Google Scholar
- 6.Mol, H. G.; Plaza-Bolanos, P.; Zomer, P.; de Rijk, T. C.; Stolker, A. A.; Mulder, P. P. Toward a generic extraction method for simultaneous determination of pesticides, mycotoxins, plant toxins, and veterinary drugs in feed and food matrixes. Anal. Chem. 2008, 80(24), 9450–9459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Kaufmann, A.; Butcher, P.; Maden, K.; Widmer, M. Quantitative multiresidue method for about 100 veterinary drugs in different meat matrices by sub 2-microm particulate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 2008, 1194(1), 66–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Nielen, M. W.; van Engelen, M. C.; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. Anal. Chim. Acta. 2007, 586(1/2), 122–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.van der Heeft, E.; Bolck, Y. J. C.; Beumer, B.; Nijrolder, A. W. J. M.; Stolker, A. A. M.; Nielen, M. W. F. Full-scan accurate mass selectivity of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight and Orbitrap mass spectrometry in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2009, 20(3), 451–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar